Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-11-17

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/

New Pancreas Articles


  • Application of low dose pancreas perfusion CT combined with enhancement scanning in diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Nov;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33191144

PURPOSE: To explore the diagnostic value of pancreatic perfusion CT combined with contrast-enhanced CT in one-time scanning (PCECT) in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and to evaluate the difference of perfusion parameters between different grades of PNETs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2016 to December 2018, forty consecutive patients with histopathological-proven PNETs were identified retrospectively that received PCECT for the preoperative PNETs evaluation. Two board certified radiologists who were blinded to the clinical data evaluated the images independently. The image characters of PNETs vs. tumor-free pancreatic parenchymal and different grades of PNETs were analyzed.
RESULTS: One-time PCECT scanning had a detection rate of 89.1% for PNETs, which was higher than the detection accuracy of the perfusion CT only (83.6%). The perfusion parameters of PNETs including blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), mean slope of increase (MSI), and capillary surface permeability (PS) were significantly increased than those of tumor-free pancreatic parenchyma (p < 0.05, respectively). For differential comparison between grade I (G1) and grade II (G2) tumors, the parameters of BF and impulse residue function (IRF) of tumor tissue were significantly higher in the G2 tumors (p < 0.05, for both). In this study, the total radiation dose of the whole PCECT scan was 16.241 ± 2.289 mSv.
CONCLUSION: The one-time PCECT scan may improve the detection of PNETs according to morphological features and perfusion parameters with a relative small radiation dose. The perfusion parameters of BF and IRF may be used to help distinguish G1 and G2 tumors in the preoperative evaluation.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.10.046



  • Paratesticular tumors. A clinicopathological study from a single tertiary hospital in North India

Annals of diagnostic pathology 2020 Nov;50():151658

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33189965

OBJECTIVE: Paratesticular tumors (PTT) are rare and form a heterogenous group, ranging from benign to malignant high grade sarcomas. This study was undertaken to describe the clinicopathological spectrum of PTTs received over a 20-year period.
METHODS: All primary and secondary PTTs diagnosed from 2000 to 2019 in the pathology department of a tertiary care hospital in North India were retrospectively reviewed. Gross, histopathological features and immunohistochemistry (IHC) findings were correlated with clinical details.
RESULTS: A total of 169 intra-scrotal tumors were diagnosed during the study period, out of which there were 30 PTTs (in 27 patients) comprising 17.75%. Age range was 4 to 85 years (median 58 years). Benign PTTs were the commonest (n = 21, 70%), followed by metastasis to the paratesticular region (n = 6, 20%) and then primary malignant PTTs (n = 3, 10%). The commonest benign PTT was lipoma (n = 16, 76.19%), followed by adenomatoid tumor (n = 3, 14.28%) with one case each (4.76%) of cellular angiofibroma and hemangioma. Among primary malignant PTT, there were two cases of rhabdomyosarcoma, and one case of biphasic malignant mesothelioma. Metastatic tumors included four cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma, and one case each of pancreatic signet ring cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: PTTs show a wide clinicopathological spectrum. Benign PTTs are commoner than malignant PTTs. Meticulous grossing and histopathological examination supplemented by IHC is essential for an accurate diagnosis of this heterogenous class of tumors, which influences the role of adjuvant therapy and patient prognosis.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2020.151658



  • The overlap between irritable bowel syndrome and organic gastrointestinal diseases

The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology 2020 Nov;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33189181

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel disorder characterised by symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain associated with a change in bowel habit. This condition is one of the most frequent reasons to seek a gastroenterology consultation in primary and secondary care. The diagnosis of IBS is made by identifying characteristic symptoms, as defined by the Rome criteria, and excluding organic gastrointestinal diseases that might otherwise explain these symptoms. Organic conditions that can be mistaken for IBS include coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer, and, in those with diarrhoea-predominant symptoms, chronic gastrointestinal infections, microscopic colitis, and primary bile acid diarrhoea. The concept of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth being associated with IBS is shrouded with controversy and uncertainty, mainly because of invalid tests due to poor sensitivity and specificity, potentially leading to incorrect assumptions. There is insufficient evidence to link IBS-type symptoms with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, since both are hampered by conflicting data. Finally, there is growing appreciation that IBS can present in patients with known but stable organic gastrointestinal diseases, such as quiescent IBD or coeliac disease. Recognising functional gut symptoms in these individuals is paramount so that potentially harmful escalations in immunosuppressive therapy can be avoided and attention can be focused on addressing disorders of gut-brain interaction. This Review endeavours to aid clinicians who practise adult gastroenterology in recognising the potential overlap between IBS and organic gastrointestinal diseases and highlights areas in need of further research and clarity.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30212-0



  • Recent epidemiology of patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) in Japan: a population-based study

BMC cancer 2020 Nov;20(1):1104

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33189127

BACKGROUND: The worldwide prevalence and incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) have been increasing recently, although few studies have analyzed data on the current situation of NENs in Japan. Here, the Japan Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (JNETS) planned to investigate the recent incidence and distribution of these tumors using data from the national cancer registry started in 2016. This study examined the incidence and distribution of primary sites as well as rate of advanced disease from this population-based registry.
METHODS: A retrospective, population-based study using data from the national cancer registry in Japan (NCR) was conducted to evaluate patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic NEN (GEP-NEN) in 2016. Associated population data were used to determine annual age-adjusted incidences.
RESULTS: A total of 6735 individuals were diagnosed with GEP-NEN in Japan in 2016. Annual onset incidence was 0.70/100,000 for pancreatic NEN and 2.84/100,000 for gastrointestinal NEN. NEN in the ileum accounted for only 1% of total GEP-NENs in Japan. Most NENs in the esophagus or lungs were neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), while the majority of those in the duodenum, ileum, appendix and rectum were grade 1 neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Median age at initial diagnosis was in between 60 to 65. Tumors in the duodenum, appendix and rectum were mostly limited to local, while those in the esophagus, stomach and colon tended to show distant metastasis. In Japan, initial treatment for GEP-NENs was resection even if the tumor was NEC.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a national registry-based incidence and distribution of GEP-NEN in Japan. These data will serve as an important first step to determining the exact etiology and trends for this pathology in Japan.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07581-y



  • Defining the Comprehensive Genomic Landscapes of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Using Real World Endoscopic Aspiration Samples

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2020 Nov;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33188144

PURPOSE: Most patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) present with surgically unresectable cancer. As a result, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the most common biospecimen source available for diagnosis in treatment-naïve patients. Unfortunately, these limited samples are often not considered adequate for genomic analysis, precluding the opportunity for enrollment on precision medicine trials.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Applying an EpCAM-enrichment strategy, we show the feasibility of using real-world EUS-FNAs for in depth, molecular-barcoded, whole-exome sequencing (WES) and somatic copy number alteration (SCNA) analysis in 23 PDAC patients.
RESULTS: Potentially actionable mutations were identified in >20% of patients. Further, an increased mutational burden and higher aneuploidy in WES data were associated with an adverse prognosis. To identify predictive biomarkers for first line chemotherapy, we developed an SCNA based complexity score (CS) that was associated with response to platinum-based regimens in this cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results emphasize the feasibility of real-world cytology samples for in depth genomic characterization of PDAC and show the prognostic potential of SCNA for PDAC diagnosis.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2667



  • An autopsy case of severe acute pancreatitis induced by administration of pazopanib following nivolumab

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Nov;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33184007

Drug-induced pancreatitis is often mild to moderate in severity, but severe and even fatal cases can occur. Here, we report a 74-year-old woman undergoing chemotherapy for recurrent renal cell carcinoma, who presented with abdominal pain after administration of pazopanib following nivolumab and was diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis. Administration of methylprednisolone and conservative treatment were initiated, but clinical findings and laboratory tests rapidly worsened. When she died, an autopsy was performed. The autopsy findings suggested the possibility of pancreatitis as immune-related adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, no fatal cases of acute pancreatitis due to nivolumab or pazopanib have been reported. We considered that the effects of nivolumab were sustained in the pancreas, and pazopanib administration might have worsened the toxicity.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.11.002


New GallBladder Articles

Today there is no new Gallbladder Article.

New BileDuct Articles

Today there is no new Bile Duct Article.

New Ampulla Articles


  • Recent epidemiology of patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) in Japan: a population-based study

BMC cancer 2020 Nov;20(1):1104

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33189127

BACKGROUND: The worldwide prevalence and incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) have been increasing recently, although few studies have analyzed data on the current situation of NENs in Japan. Here, the Japan Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (JNETS) planned to investigate the recent incidence and distribution of these tumors using data from the national cancer registry started in 2016. This study examined the incidence and distribution of primary sites as well as rate of advanced disease from this population-based registry.
METHODS: A retrospective, population-based study using data from the national cancer registry in Japan (NCR) was conducted to evaluate patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic NEN (GEP-NEN) in 2016. Associated population data were used to determine annual age-adjusted incidences.
RESULTS: A total of 6735 individuals were diagnosed with GEP-NEN in Japan in 2016. Annual onset incidence was 0.70/100,000 for pancreatic NEN and 2.84/100,000 for gastrointestinal NEN. NEN in the ileum accounted for only 1% of total GEP-NENs in Japan. Most NENs in the esophagus or lungs were neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), while the majority of those in the duodenum, ileum, appendix and rectum were grade 1 neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Median age at initial diagnosis was in between 60 to 65. Tumors in the duodenum, appendix and rectum were mostly limited to local, while those in the esophagus, stomach and colon tended to show distant metastasis. In Japan, initial treatment for GEP-NENs was resection even if the tumor was NEC.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a national registry-based incidence and distribution of GEP-NEN in Japan. These data will serve as an important first step to determining the exact etiology and trends for this pathology in Japan.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07581-y


To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/