Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-11-04

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/

New Pancreas Articles


  • Neurons Release Serine to Support mRNA Translation in Pancreatic Cancer

Cell 2020 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33142117

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumors have a nutrient-poor, desmoplastic, and highly innervated tumor microenvironment. Although neurons can release stimulatory factors to accelerate PDAC tumorigenesis, the metabolic contribution of peripheral axons has not been explored. We found that peripheral axons release serine (Ser) to support the growth of exogenous Ser (exSer)-dependent PDAC cells during Ser/Gly (glycine) deprivation. Ser deprivation resulted in ribosomal stalling on two of the six Ser codons, TCC and TCT, and allowed the selective translation and secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) by PDAC cells to promote tumor innervation. Consistent with this, exSer-dependent PDAC tumors grew slower and displayed enhanced innervation in mice on a Ser/Gly-free diet. Blockade of compensatory neuronal innervation using LOXO-101, a Trk-NGF inhibitor, further decreased PDAC tumor growth. Our data indicate that axonal-cancer metabolic crosstalk is a critical adaptation to support PDAC growth in nutrient poor environments.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.016



  • Does Major Pancreatic Surgery Have Utility in Nonagenarians with Pancreas Cancer?

Annals of surgical oncology 2020 Nov;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33141373

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to define the role of surgery and assess different therapies for nonagenarians with localized, nonmetastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
METHODS: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for patients ≥ 90 years of age with nonmetastatic, localized PDAC from 2004-2016. Postoperative mortality was assessed at 30 and 90 days in patients receiving pancreatoduodenectomy or total pancreatectomy. Overall survival (OS) was compared between three treatment groups: surgery alone, chemotherapy alone, and chemoradiation (chemoRT) alone.
RESULTS: Of 380,524 patients with PDAC, 98 patients ≥ 90 years of age underwent curative-intent resection; 55% were female and 75% had a Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score of 0. A total of 17% received postoperative chemotherapy, 51.1% had poorly differentiated tumors with a median tumor size of 3 cm, 55.1% had positive lymph nodes, and 19.4% had positive resection margins. Postoperative median length of stay was 11 days. Postoperative 30- and 90-day mortality was 10.0% and 18.9%, respectively. Median OS for the surgery alone group was 11.6 months compared with 20.4 months in those receiving adjuvant therapy (p = 0.01). Among nonoperative PDAC patients, median OS in patients receiving chemotherapy only (n = 207) was 7.2 months, while chemoRT only (n = 100) was similar to surgery only (11 versus 11.6 months, p = 0.97).
CONCLUSIONS: Even in well-selected nonagenarians, pancreatoduodenectomy or total pancreatectomy carries a high mortality rate. While adjuvant therapy after resection provides the best survival, it is seldom achieved, and chemoRT alone affords identical survival statistics as surgery alone. These data suggest it is reasonable to consider chemoRT as initial therapy, then reassess candidacy for resection if performance status allows.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09279-8



  • Risk of digestive cancers in a cohort of 69 460 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in Europe: the PanCareSurFup study

Gut 2020 Nov;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33139271

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of subsequent primary neoplasms (SPNs), but the risk of developing specific digestive SPNs beyond age 40 years remains uncertain. We investigated risks of specific digestive SPNs within the largest available cohort worldwide.
METHODS: The PanCareSurFup cohort includes 69 460 five-year survivors of childhood cancer from 12 countries in Europe. Risks of digestive SPNs were quantified using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), absolute excess risks and cumulative incidence.
RESULTS: 427 digestive SPNs (214 colorectal, 62 liver, 48 stomach, 44 pancreas, 59 other) were diagnosed in 413 survivors. Wilms tumour (WT) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors were at greatest risk (SIR 12.1; 95% CI 9.6 to 15.1; SIR 7.3; 95% CI 5.9 to 9.0, respectively). The cumulative incidence increased the most steeply with increasing age for WT survivors, reaching 7.4% by age 55% and 9.6% by age 60 years (1.0% expected based on general population rates). Regarding colorectal SPNs, WT and HL survivors were at greatest risk; both seven times that expected. By age 55 years, 2.3% of both WT (95% CI 1.4 to 3.9) and HL (95% CI 1.6 to 3.2) survivors had developed a colorectal SPN-comparable to the risk among members of the general population with at least two first-degree relatives affected.
CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopy surveillance before age 55 is recommended in many European countries for individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, but not for WT and HL survivors despite a comparable risk profile. Clinically, serious consideration should be given to the implementation of colonoscopy surveillance while further evaluation of its benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness in WT and HL survivors is undertaken.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322237



  • Role of ultrasound shear wave elastography in preoperative prediction of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33139201

BACKGROUND: Majority of predictors of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) use intraoperative variables. We aimed to study the role of preoperative ultrasound shear wave elastography (USWE) to predict POPF.
METHODS: The consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) between January 2019 to March 2020 were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent USWE assessment at the pancreatic neck level. Intraoperative variables including pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, blood loss and histological grading of fibrosis were also recorded. Associations between USWE and intraoperative variables and histological grading with the development of POPF were analyzed.
RESULTS: Of the 62 patients assessed, 50 patients (mean age: 53 ± 14 years; 31 males) were included. POPF and clinically relevant POPF (CRPOPF) were observed in 22 (44%) and 7 (14%) patients respectively. Soft pancreas was an independent predictor of CRPOPF (p = 0.04). The mean USWE valve was significantly lower in patients with CRPOPF as compared to no CRPOPF (9.7 Kpa vs. 12.8Kpa, p = 0.016). At receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, USWE value of 12.65Kpa yielded sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 47%, respectively, for prediction of CRPOPF. USWE showed significant correlation with intraoperative pancreatic texture (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ) = 0.565, p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: USWE helps in preoperative prediction of CRPOPF. This may further help to customize management strategy in high risk patients.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.10.047


New GallBladder Articles

Today there is no new Gallbladder Article.

New BileDuct Articles

Today there is no new Bile Duct Article.

New Ampulla Articles

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To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/