Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-10-12

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/

New Pancreas Articles


  • Establishing a living biobank of patient-derived organoids of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2020 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33037322

Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. There is an unmet need to develop strategies to detect PaCa at an early, operable stage and prevent its progression. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are cystic PaCa precursors that comprise nearly 50% of pancreatic cysts detected incidentally via cross-sectional imaging. Since IPMNs can progress from low- and moderate-grade dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia and invasion, the study of these lesions offers a prime opportunity to develop early detection and prevention strategies. Organoids are an ideal preclinical platform to study IPMNs, and the objective of the current investigation was to establish a living biobank of patient-derived organoids (PDO) from IPMNs. IPMN tumors and adjacent normal pancreatic tissues were successfully harvested from 15 patients with IPMNs undergoing pancreatic surgical resection at Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute (Tampa, FL) between May of 2017 and March of 2019. Organoid cultures were also generated from cryopreserved tissues. Organoid count and size were determined over time by both Image-Pro Premier 3D Version 9.1 digital platform and Matlab application of a Circular Hough Transform algorithm, and histologic and genomic characterization of a subset of the organoids was performed using immunohistochemistry and targeted sequencing, respectively. The success rates for organoid generation from IPMN tumor and adjacent normal pancreatic tissues were 81% and 87%, respectively. IPMN organoids derived from different epithelial subtypes showed different morphologies in vitro, and organoids recapitulated histologic and genomic characteristics of the parental IPMN tumor. In summary, this preclinical model has the potential to provide new opportunities to unveil mechanisms of IPMN progression to invasion and to shed insight into novel biomarkers for early detection and targets for chemoprevention.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00494-1



  • A single center randomized double blind controlled trial of pentoxifylline in acute pancreatitis: Challenges and opportunities

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33036921

OBJECTIVES: Despite substantial morbidity and mortality associated with acute pancreatitis (AP), only one small randomized controlled drug trial (RCT) is available in the past few decades from the United States. Hence, we conducted a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT of pentoxifylline in AP.
METHODS: A total of 9 doses of oral pentoxifylline 400 mg or placebo tablet, three times daily, was administered within 72 h of diagnosis, using randomization blocks by pharmacy. Primary outcome was a composite outcome including any of the following: death, peripancreatic and/or pancreatic necrosis, infected pancreatic necrosis, persistent organ failure, persistent systemic inflammatory response syndrome, hospital stay longer than 4 days, need for intensive care, and need for intervention for necrosis.
RESULTS: Between July 7, 2015, and April 4, 2017, we identified 685 patients with AP, 233 met eligibility criteria and 176 were approached for the study. Of these, 91 (51.7%) declined and finally 45 in pentoxifylline group and 38 in placebo group (83 total) were compared. There were no significant differences in primary outcome (27 [60.0%] vs 15 [39.5%]; P = .06). Pentoxifylline group was not associated with any benefit, but withlonger stay (42% vs. 21%; P = .04) and higher readmission rates (16 %vs 3%; P = .047).
CONCLUSIONS: We could not demonstrate superiority of pentoxifylline over placebo. Smaller sample size and inclusion of all types of severity might be the reasons for lack of efficacy. The challenges observed in the present study indicate that, in order to conduct a successful drug trial in AP, a multi center collaboration is essential.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.09.023


New GallBladder Articles

Today there is no new Gallbladder Article.

New BileDuct Articles

Today there is no new Bile Duct Article.

New Ampulla Articles


  • A retrospective study on the association of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with low lactase activity and low activity of other disaccharidases

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Oct;20(1):331

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33036568

BACKGROUND: Disaccharides such as lactose and sucrose are sugars commonly found in human diet. They are broken down by mucosal disaccharidases in the duodenum. Previous small studies found no associations between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and combined low disaccharidase activity. We aim to explore the associations of low activity of disaccharidase and combinations of low activity of different disaccharidases with general GI symptom presentations in a large cohort of pediatric patients.
METHODS: We examined a cohort (0-21 yrs.) who have undergone esophagogastroduodenoscopy and received disaccharidase activity assay from duodenal biopsy in the time period 2010 to 2012. Disaccharidase assays tested for activity of lactase, sucrase, maltase, and palatinase. GI symptoms were grouped into four categories, abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and gastroesophageal reflux.
RESULTS: Of the 347 subjects, we found an association between low lactase activity and abdominal pain (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.07-2.97; p < 0.05). Subjects with a lactase/sucrase ratio < 0.2 were found to be associated with abdominal pain (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.25-4.04; p < 0.05), Subjects with low pandisaccharidase may be correlated with abdominal pain and have a unique frequency of GI symptoms due to low frequency of diarrhea and weight loss, but they were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Low activities of certain disaccharidase combinations may be associated with GI symptoms in subjects; a prospective study may be needed to investigate further.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01443-4


To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/