Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-10-04

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

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New Pancreas Articles


  • Kras mutation rate precisely orchestrates ductal derived pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic cancer

Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2020 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33009500

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Despite the high prevalence of Kras mutations in pancreatic cancer patients, murine models expressing the oncogenic mutant Kras (Krasmut) in mature pancreatic cells develop PDAC at a low frequency. Independent of cell of origin, a second genetic hit (loss of tumor suppressor TP53 or PTEN) is important for development of PDAC in mice. We hypothesized ectopic expression and elevated levels of oncogenic mutant Kras would promote PanIN arising in pancreatic ducts. To test our hypothesis, the significance of elevating levels of K-Ras and Ras activity has been explored by expression of a CAG driven LGSL-KrasG12V allele (cKras) in pancreatic ducts, which promotes ectopic Kras expression. We predicted expression of cKras in pancreatic ducts would generate neoplasia and PDAC. To test our hypothesis, we employed tamoxifen dependent CreERT2 mediated recombination. Hnf1b:CreERT2;KrasG12V (cKrasHnf1b/+) mice received 1 (Low), 5 (Mod) or 10 (High) mg per 20 g body weight to recombine cKras in low (cKrasLow), moderate (cKrasMod), and high (cKrasHigh) percentages of pancreatic ducts. Our histologic analysis revealed poorly differentiated aggressive tumors in cKrasHigh mice. cKrasMod mice had grades of Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PanIN), recapitulating early and advanced PanIN observed in human PDAC. Proteomics analysis revealed significant differences in PTEN/AKT and MAPK pathways between wild type, cKrasLow, cKrasMod, and cKrasHigh mice. In conclusion, in this study, we provide evidence that ectopic expression of oncogenic mutant K-Ras in pancreatic ducts generates early and late PanIN as well as PDAC. This Ras rheostat model provides evidence that AKT signaling is an important early driver of invasive ductal derived PDAC.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00490-5



  • Changing trends in the clinicopathological features, practices and outcomes in the surgical management for cystic lesions of the pancreas and impact of the international guidelines: Single institution experience with 462 cases between 1995-2018

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Sep;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33008749

INTRODUCTION: The impact on clinical practice of the international guidelines including the Sendai Guidelines (SG06) and Fukuoka Guidelines (FG12) on the management of cystic lesions of the pancreas (CLP) has not been well-studied. The primary aim was to examine the changing trends and outcomes in the surgical management of CLP in our institution over time and to determine the impact of these guidelines on our institution practice.
METHODS: 462 patients with surgically-treated CLP were retrospectively reviewed and classified under the 2 guidelines. The cohort was divided into 3 time periods: 1998-2006, 2007-2012 and 2013 to 2018.
RESULTS: Comparison across the 3 time periods demonstrated significantly increasing frequency of older patients, asymptomatic CLP, male gender, smaller tumor size, elevated Ca 19-9, use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) prior to surgery. There was also significantly increasing frequency of adherence to the international guidelines as evidenced by the increasing proportion of HRSG06 and HRFG12 CLP with a corresponding lower proportion of LRSG06 and LRFG12 being resected. This resulted in a significantly higher proportion of resected CLP whereby the final pathology confirmed that a surgery was actually indicated.
CONCLUSIONS: Over time, there was increasing adherence to the international guidelines for the selection of patients for surgical resection as evidenced by the significantly increasing proportion of HRSG06 and HRFG06 CLPs undergoing surgery. This was associated with a significantly higher proportion of patients with a definitive indication for surgery. These suggested that over time, there was a continuous improvement in our selection of appropriate CLP for surgical treatment.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.09.019



  • Integrated analysis identifies a pathway-related competing endogenous RNA network in the progression of pancreatic cancer

BMC cancer 2020 Oct;20(1):958

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33008376

BACKGROUND: It is well acknowledged that cancer-related pathways play pivotal roles in the progression of pancreatic cancer (PC). Employing Integrated analysis, we aim to identify the pathway-related ceRNA network associated with PC progression.
METHODS: We divided eight GEO datasets into three groups according to their platform, and combined TCGA and GTEx databases as a group. Additionally, we screened out the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and performed functional enrichment analysis in each group, and recognized the top hub genes in the most enriched pathway. Furthermore, the upstream of miRNAs and lncRNAs were predicted and validated according to their expression and prognostic roles. Finally, the co-expression analysis was applied to identify a pathway-related ceRNA network in the progression of PC.
RESULTS: A total of 51 significant pathways that common enriched in all groups were spotted. Enrichment analysis indicated that pathway in cancer was greatly linked with tumor formation and progression. Next, the top 20 hug genes in this pathway were recognized, and stepwise prediction and validation from mRNA to lncRNA, including 11 hub genes, 4 key miRNAs, and 2 key lncRNAs, were applied to identify a meaningful ceRNA network according to ceRNA rules. Ultimately, we identified the PVT1/miR-20b/CCND1 axis as a promising pathway-related ceRNA axis in the progression of PC.
CONCLUSION: Overall, we elucidate the pathway-related ceRNA regulatory network of PVT1/miR-20b/CCND1 in the progression of PC, which can be considered as therapeutic targets and encouraging prognostic biomarkers for PC.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07470-4



  • Clinical characteristics and blood/serum bound prognostic biomarkers in advanced pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel

BMC cancer 2020 Oct;20(1):950

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33008332

BACKGROUND: In recent years treatment options for advanced pancreatic cancer have markedly improved, and a combination regimen of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel is now considered standard of care in Sweden and elsewhere. Nevertheless, a majority of patients do not respond to treatment. In order to guide the individual patient to the most beneficial therapeutic strategy, simple and easily available prognostic and predictive markers are needed.
METHODS: The potential prognostic value of a range of blood/serum parameters, patient-, and tumour characteristics was explored in a retrospective cohort of 75 patients treated with gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (Gem/NabP) for advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the South Eastern Region of Sweden. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS) while progression free survival (PFS) was the key secondary outcome.
RESULT: Univariable Cox regression analysis revealed that high baseline serum albumin (> 37 g/L) and older age (> 65) were positive prognostic markers for OS, and in multivariable regression analysis both parameters were confirmed to be independent prognostic variables (HR 0.48, p = 0.023 and HR = 0.47, p = 0.039,). Thrombocytopenia at any time during the treatment was an independent predictor for improved progression free survival (PFS) but not for OS (HR 0.49, p = 0.029, 0.54, p = 0.073), whereas thrombocytopenia developed under cycle 1 was neither related with OS nor PFS (HR 0.87, p = 0.384, HR 1.04, p = 0.771). Other parameters assessed (gender, tumour stage, ECOG performance status, myelosuppression, baseline serum CA19-9, and baseline serum bilirubin levels) were not significantly associated with survival.
CONCLUSION: Serum albumin at baseline is a prognostic factor with palliative Gem/NabP in advanced PDAC, and should be further assessed as a tool for risk stratification. Older age was associated with improved survival, which encourages further studies on the use of Gem/NabP in the elderly.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07426-8



  • Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy controls inappropriate calcitriol secretion in a pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumor: a case report

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Oct;20(1):324

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33008295

BACKGROUND: Hypercalcemia of malignancy is not uncommon in patients with advanced stage cancer. In rare cases the cause of the hypercalcemia is excessive production of calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. Although inappropriate tumoral secretion of calcitriol is typically associated with lymphomas and some ovarian germ cell tumors, we present a case of calcitriol overproduction-induced hypercalcemia due to a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. The high expression of somatostatin receptors on this neuroendocrine neoplasm opened up the opportunity to treat the patient with radiolabelled somatostatin analogs, which successfully controlled the refractory hypercalcaemia and calcitriol levels. This case documents a rare finding of refractory hypercalcaemia of underlying malignancy due to a calcitriol-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, responding to peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT).
CASE PRESENTATION: A 57 years-old patient presented with back pain, general discomfort, polydipsia, polyuria, fatigue and recent weight loss of 10 kg. Clinical examination was normal and there was no relevant medical history. Biochemical evaluation showed hypercalcemia with markedly increased calcitriol levels. CT-thorax-abdomen and ultrasound guided biopsy revealed a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with multifocal liver metastases, suggesting that excessive overproduction of calcitriol by this neuroendocrine tumor was the cause of the refractory hypercalcemia. The patient was eligible for PRRT. Four cycles of 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT resulted in a morphological response and a normalization of serum calcium levels, confirming the hypothesis of a calcitriol producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Progression of liver metastases warranted further therapy and temozolomide-capecitabine was started with morphological and biochemical (serum calcium, calcitriol) stabilization.
CONCLUSION: Although up to 30-40% of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are known to be functional (i.e. producing symptoms associated with the predominant hormone/peptide secreted), calcitriol secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are very rare. However, treatment with PRRT resulted in normalization of calcium and calcitriol levels, strongly supporting the hypothesis of a calcitriol-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01470-1



  • Mesenchymal plasticity regulated by Prrx1 drives aggressive pancreatic cancer biology

Gastroenterology 2020 Sep;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33007300

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by a fibroblast-rich desmoplastic stroma. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been shown to display a high degree of interconvertible states including quiescent, inflammatory and myofibroblastic phenotypes, however, the mechanisms by which this plasticity is achieved are poorly understood. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of CAF plasticity and its impact on PDAC biology.
METHODS: To investigate the role of mesenchymal plasticity in PDAC progression, we generated a PDAC mouse model in which CAF plasticity is modulated by genetical depletion of the transcription factor Prrx1. Primary pancreatic fibroblasts from this mouse model were further characterized by functional in vitro assays. To characterize the impact of CAFs on tumor differentiation and response to chemotherapy various co-culture experiments were performed. In vivo, tumors were characterized by morphology, extracellular matrix composition as well as tumor dissemination and metastasis.
RESULTS: Our in vivo findings demonstrated that Prrx1-deficient CAFs remain constitutively activated. Importantly, this CAF phenotype determines tumor differentiation and disrupts systemic tumor dissemination. Mechanistically, co-culture experiments of tumor organoids and CAFs revealed that CAFs shape the epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotype and confer gemcitabine resistance of PDAC cells induced by CAF-derived hepatocyte growth factor. Furthermore, gene expression analysis revealed that pancreatic cancer patients with high stromal expression of Prrx1 display the squamous, most aggressive, subtype of PDAC.
CONCLUSION: Here, we define that the Prrx1 transcription factor is critical for tuning CAF activation, allowing a dynamic switch between a dormant and an activated state. This work demonstrates that Prrx1-mediated CAF plasticity has significant impact on PDAC biology and therapeutic resistance.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.09.010



  • Evidence of a common cell origin in a case of pancreatic mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm-neuroendocrine tumor

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2020 Oct;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33005981

Recently, the term mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNEN) has been proposed as an umbrella definition covering different possible combinations of mixed neuroendocrine-exocrine neoplasms. Among these, the adenoma plus neuroendocrine tumor (NET) combination is among the rarest and not formally recognized by the 2019 WHO Classification. In this setting, the debate between either collision tumors or true mixed neoplasms is still unsolved. In this report, a pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) plus a NET is described, and the molecular investigations showed the presence in both populations of the same KRAS, GNAS, and CDKN2A mutations and the amplification of the CCND1 gene. These data prove clonality and support a common origin of both components, therefore confirming the true mixed nature. For this reason, mixed neuroendocrine-exocrine neoplasms, in which the exocrine component is represented by a glandular precursor lesion (adenoma/IPMN) only, should be included into the MiNEN family.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02942-1



  • Carbon ion radiotherapy as definitive treatment in non-metastasized pancreatic cancer: study protocol of the prospective phase II PACK-study

BMC cancer 2020 Oct;20(1):947

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33004046

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is known to improve local tumor control in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), although there is a lack of convincing data on a potential overall survival benefit of chemoradiotherapy over chemotherapy alone. To improve efficacy of radiotherapy, new approaches need to be evolved. Carbon ion radiotherapy is supposed to be more effective than photon radiotherapy due to a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and due to a steep dose-gradient making dose delivery highly conformal.
METHODS: The present Phase II PACK-study investigates carbon ion radiotherapy as definitive treatment in LAPC as well as in locally recurrent pancreatic cancer. A total irradiation dose of 48 Gy (RBE) will be delivered in twelve fractions. Concurrent chemotherapy is accepted, if indicated. The primary endpoint is the overall survival rate after 12 months. Secondary endpoints are progression free survival, safety, quality of life and impact on tumor markers CA 19-9 and CEA. A total of twenty-five patients are planned for recruitment over 2 years.
DISCUSSION: Recently, Japanese researches could show promising results in a Phase I/II-study evaluating chemoradiotherapy of carbon ion radiotherapy and gemcitabine in LAPC. The present prospective PACK-study investigates the efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy in pancreatic cancer at Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04194268 (Retrospectively registered on December, 11th 2019).

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07434-8



  • Clinical outcomes of chemotherapy in patients with undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas: a retrospective multicenter cohort study

BMC cancer 2020 Oct;20(1):946

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33004032

BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) of the pancreas is a rare subtype of pancreatic cancer. Although UC has been considered a highly aggressive malignancy, no clinical studies have addressed the efficacy of chemotherapy for unresectable UC. Therefore, we conducted multicenter retrospective study to investigate the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with UC of the pancreas.
METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted at 17 institutions in Japan between January 2007 and December 2017. A total of 50 patients treated with chemotherapy were analyzed.
RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) in UC patients treated with chemotherapy was 4.08 months. The details of first-line chemotherapy were as follows: gemcitabine (n = 24), S-1 (n = 12), gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (n = 6), and other treatment (n = 8). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.61 months in the gemcitabine group, 2.96 months in the S-1 group, and 4.60 months in the gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel group. Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel significantly improved PFS compared with gemcitabine (p = 0.014). The objective response rate (ORR) was 4.2% in the gemcitabine group, 0.0% in the S-1 group, and 33.3% in the gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel group. Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel also showed a significantly higher ORR compared with both gemcitabine and S-1 (gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel vs. gemcitabine: p = 0.033; gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel vs. S-1: p = 0.034). A paclitaxel-containing first-line regimen significantly improved OS compared with a non-paclitaxel-containing regimen (6.94 months vs. 3.75 months, respectively; p = 0.041). After adjustment, use of a paclitaxel-containing regimen in any line was still an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio for OS, 0.221; 95% confidence interval, 0.076-0.647; p = 0.006) in multiple imputation by chained equation.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicate that a paclitaxel-containing regimen would offer relatively longer survival, and it is considered a reasonable option for treating patients with unresectable UC.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07462-4



  • Efficacy of Early Percutaneous Catheter Drainage in Acute Pancreatitis of Varying Severity Associated With Sterile Acute Inflammatory Pancreatic Fluid Collection

Pancreas 2020 Oct;49(9):1246-1254

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33003087

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of early percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) for sterile acute inflammatory pancreatic fluid collection (AIPFC) in acute pancreatitis (AP) of varying severity.
METHODS: Retrospective analyses were performed based on the presence of sterile AIPFC and different AP severities according to 2012 Revised Atlanta Classification.
RESULTS: Early PCD contributed to obvious decreases in operation rate (OR, P = 0.006), infection rate (IR, P = 0.020), and mortality (P = 0.009) in severe AP (SAP). In moderate SAP with sterile AIPFCs, however, early PCD was associated with increased OR (P = 0.009) and IR (P = 0.040). Subgroup analysis revealed that early PCD led to remarkable decreases in OR for patients with persistent organ failure (OF) within 3 days (P = 0.024 for single OF, P = 0.039 for multiple OF) and in mortality for patients with multiple OF (P = 0.041 for OF within 3 days and P = 0.055 for 3-14 days). Moreover, lower mortality was found in SAP patients with early PCD-induced infections than with spontaneous infections (P = 0.027).
CONCLUSIONS: Early PCD may improve the prognosis of SAP with drainable sterile AIPFCs by reducing the OR, IR, and mortality.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001666



  • Pancreatic Angiopathy Associated With Islet Amyloid and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Pancreas 2020 Oct;49(9):1232-1239

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33003086

OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is histopathologically characterized by islet amyloid and is closely connected with vascular complications. Here, we explore the presence of pancreatic angiopathy (PA) associated with islet amyloid and T2D.
METHODS: From a total of 172 autopsy cases who had a history of T2D diagnosis, we randomly selected 30 T2D autopsy cases with islet amyloid (DA+) in comparison with islet amyloid-free (DA-) 30 T2D cases and 60 nondiabetic (ND) controls. Amyloid deposits and PA including atherosclerosis of pancreatic interlobar arteries, arterial calcification, atheroembolism, hyaline arteriosclerosis of small arterioles, and islet capillary density were detected in all groups.
RESULTS: Pancreatic angiopathy was found in 91.7% of patients with T2D and in 68.3% of ND controls (P < 0.01). Furthermore, 100% of DA+ patients and 83.3% of DA- subjects showed PA. The intraislet capillary density was significantly lower in DA+ subjects than DA- subjects (mean [standard deviation], DA+: 205 [82] count/mm; DA-: 344 [76] count/mm; ND: 291 [94] count/mm; P < 0.01). Finally, interlobar arteriosclerosis (R = 0.603, P < 0.01) was linearly correlated with the severity of islet amyloid deposits.
CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic angiopathy might be both a cause and a consequence of islet amyloid and T2D.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001664



  • Reviews on Current Liquid Biopsy for Detection and Management of Pancreatic Cancers

Pancreas 2020 Oct;49(9):1141-1152

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33003085

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Pancreatic cancer presents dismal clinical outcomes in patients, and the incidence of pancreatic cancer has continuously increased to likely become the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths by as early as 2030. One of main reasons for the high mortality rate of pancreatic cancer is the lack of tools for early-stage detection. Current practice in detecting and monitoring therapeutic response in pancreatic cancer relies on imaging analysis and invasive endoscopic examination. Liquid biopsy-based analysis of genetic alterations in biofluids has become a fundamental component in the diagnosis and management of cancers. There is an urgent need for scientific and technological advancement to detect pancreatic cancer early and to develop effective therapies. The development of a highly sensitive and specific liquid biopsy tool will require extensive understanding on the characteristics of circulating tumor DNA in biofluids. Here, we have reviewed the current status of liquid biopsy in detecting and monitoring pancreatic cancers and our understanding of circulating tumor DNA that should be considered for the development of a liquid biopsy tool, which will greatly aid in the diagnosis and healthcare of people at risk.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001662



  • Total Neoadjuvant Therapy for Operable Pancreatic Cancer

Annals of surgical oncology 2020 Sep;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33000372

BACKGROUND: Overall survival (OS) for operable pancreatic cancer (PC) is optimized when 4-6 months of nonsurgical therapy is combined with pancreatectomy. Because surgery renders the delivery of postoperative therapy uncertain, total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) is gaining popularity.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with operable PC and compared TNT with shorter course neoadjuvant therapy (SNT). Primary outcomes of interest included completion of neoadjuvant therapy (NT) and resection of the primary tumor, receipt of 5 months of nonsurgical therapy, and median OS.
RESULTS: We reviewed 541 consecutive patients from 2009 to 2019 including 226 (42%) with resectable PC and 315 (58%) with borderline resectable (BLR) PC. The median age was 66 years (IQR [59, 72]), and 260 (48%) patients were female. TNT was administered to 89 (16%) patients and SNT was administered to 452 (84%). Both groups were equally likely to complete intended NT and surgery (p = 0.90). Patients who received TNT and surgical resection were more likely to have a complete pathologic response (8% vs 4%, p < 0.01) and were more likely to receive at least 5 months of nonsurgical therapy (67% vs 45%, p < 0.01). The median OS was 26 months [IQR (15, 57)]; not reached among patients treated with TNT, and 25 months [IQR (15, 56)] among patients treated with SNT (p = 0.19).
CONCLUSIONS: TNT ensures the delivery of intended systemic therapy prior to a complicated operation without decreasing the chance of successful surgery; a window of operability was not lost. Patients who can tolerate SNT will likely benefit from TNT.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09149-3



  • Tumor quiescence: elevating SOX2 in diverse tumor cell types downregulates a broad spectrum of the cell cycle machinery and inhibits tumor growth

BMC cancer 2020 Oct;20(1):941

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32998722

BACKGROUND: Quiescent tumor cells pose a major clinical challenge due to their ability to resist conventional chemotherapies and to drive tumor recurrence. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote quiescence of tumor cells could help identify therapies to eliminate these cells. Significantly, recent studies have determined that the function of SOX2 in cancer cells is highly dose dependent. Specifically, SOX2 levels in tumor cells are optimized to promote tumor growth: knocking down or elevating SOX2 inhibits proliferation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that quiescent tumor cells express higher levels of SOX2 compared to adjacent proliferating cells. Currently, the mechanisms through which elevated levels of SOX2 restrict tumor cell proliferation have not been characterized.
METHODS: To understand how elevated levels of SOX2 restrict the proliferation of tumor cells, we engineered diverse types of tumor cells for inducible overexpression of SOX2. Using these cells, we examined the effects of elevating SOX2 on their proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we examined how elevating SOX2 influences their expression of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and p27Kip1.
RESULTS: Elevating SOX2 in diverse tumor cell types led to growth inhibition in vitro. Significantly, elevating SOX2 in vivo in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, medulloblastoma, and prostate cancer cells induced a reversible state of tumor growth arrest. In all three tumor types, elevation of SOX2 in vivo quickly halted tumor growth. Remarkably, tumor growth resumed rapidly when SOX2 returned to endogenous levels. We also determined that elevation of SOX2 in six tumor cell lines decreased the levels of cyclins and CDKs that control each phase of the cell cycle, while upregulating p27Kip1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that elevating SOX2 above endogenous levels in a diverse set of tumor cell types leads to growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our findings indicate that SOX2 can function as a master regulator by controlling the expression of a broad spectrum of cell cycle machinery. Importantly, our SOX2-inducible tumor studies provide a novel model system for investigating the molecular mechanisms by which elevated levels of SOX2 restrict cell proliferation and tumor growth.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07370-7


New GallBladder Articles

Today there is no new Gallbladder Article.

New BileDuct Articles


  • Peritumoral ductular reaction can be a prognostic factor for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Oct;20(1):322

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33008300

BACKGROUND: Peritumoral ductular reaction (DR) was reported to be related to the prognosis of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-mucin-producing intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) which may be derived from small bile duct cells or liver progenitor cells (LPCs) was known to us. However, whether peritumoral DR is also related to non-mucin-producing ICCs remains to be investigated.
METHODS: Forty-seven patients with non-mucin-producing ICC were eventually included in the study and clinicopathological variables were collected. Immunohistochemical analysis and immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin 19, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and α-smooth muscle actin were performed in tumor and peritumor liver tissues.
RESULTS: A significant correlation existed between peritumoral DR and local inflammation and fibrosis. (r = 0.357, 95% CI, 0.037-0.557; P = 0.008 and r = 0.742, 95% CI, 0.580-0.849; P < 0.001, respectively). Patients with obvious peritumoral DR had high recurrence rate (81.8% vs 56.0%, P = 0.058) and poor overall and disease-free survival time (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) comparing with mild peritumoral DR. Compared with the mild peritumoral DR group, the proliferation activity of LPCs/ cholangiocytes was higher in obvious peritumoral DR, which, however, was not statistically significant. (0.43 ± 0.29 vs 0.28 ± 0.31, P = 0.172). Furthermore, the correlation analysis showed that the DR grade was positively related to the portal/septalα-SMA level (r = 0.359, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Peritumoral DR was associated with local inflammation and fibrosis. Patients with non-mucin-producing ICC having obvious peritumoral DR had a poor prognosis. Peritumoral DR could be a prognostic factor for ICC. However, the mechanism should be further investigated.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01471-0



  • Fishbone foreign body ingestion in duodenal papilla: a cause of abdominal pain resembling gastric ulcer

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Oct;20(1):323

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33008291

BACKGROUND: Foreign body ingestion is a common clinical problem. The upper esophagus is the most common site of foreign body, accounting for more than 75% of all cases, but cases with a foreign body in the duodenal papilla or common bile duct are rarely reported.
CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a rare case that a patient's abdominal pain resembling gastric ulcer was caused by a 3 cm long fishbone inserted into the duodenal papilla.
CONCLUSION: Fishbone inserted into the duodenal papilla can cause an abdominal pain resembling gastric ulcer. Endoscopy is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of fishbone ingestion in clinical.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01475-w


New Ampulla Articles


  • Combinatorial transcriptional profiling of mouse and human enteric neurons identifies shared and disparate subtypes in situ

Gastroenterology 2020 Sep;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=33010250

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The enteric nervous system (ENS) coordinates essential intestinal functions through the concerted action of diverse enteric neurons (EN). However, integrated molecular knowledge of EN subtypes is lacking. To compare human and mouse ENs, we transcriptionally profiled healthy ENS from adult humans and mice. We aimed to identify transcripts marking discrete neuron subtypes and visualize conserved EN subtypes for humans and mice in multiple bowel regions.
METHODS: Human myenteric ganglia and adjacent smooth muscle were isolated by laser-capture microdissection for RNA-Seq. Ganglia-specific transcriptional profiles were identified by computationally subtracting muscle gene signatures. Nuclei from mouse myenteric neurons were isolated and subjected to single-nucleus RNA-Seq (snRNA-Seq), totaling over four billion reads and 25,208 neurons. Neuronal subtypes were defined using mouse snRNA-Seq data. Comparative informatics between human and mouse datasets identified shared EN subtype markers, which were visualized in situ using hybridization chain reaction (HCR).
RESULTS: Several EN subtypes in the duodenum, ileum, and colon are conserved between humans and mice based on orthologous gene expression. However, some EN subtype-specific genes from mice are expressed in completely distinct morphologically defined subtypes in humans. In mice, we identified several neuronal subtypes that stably express gene modules across all intestinal segments, with graded, regional expression of one or more marker genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our combined transcriptional profiling of human myenteric ganglia and mouse EN provides a rich foundation for developing novel intestinal therapeutics. There is congruency among some EN subtypes, but we note multiple species differences that should be carefully considered when relating findings from mouse ENS research to human GI studies.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.09.032


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