Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-08-27

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/

New Pancreas Articles


  • A case of inflammatory pseudotumour of the gallbladder presenting as a big mass of uncertain behavior

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Aug;20(1):282

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32838747

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory pseudotumour has been used to describe an inflammatory or fibrosing tumoral process of an undetermined cause that may involve a variety of organ systems, including the lungs, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, pancreas and extrahepatic bile duct with potential for recurrence and persistent local growth. In this article, we report a patient with a big mass of uncertain nature and behavior.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Six months before she had had right upper quadrant pain that was interpreted as biliary colic. A contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a big mass of soft tissue with diffuse infiltration of the gallbladder, displacement of the transverse colon, hepatic flexure and duodenum. For diagnostic distinction between a chronic inflammatory disease or a neoplasm, exploratory laparotomy was required. Intraoperative exploration disclosed a big mass of hard texture involving the gallbladder, with multiple concrements, hepatoduodenal ligament, right and transverse mesocolon, stomach and duodenum. Cholecystectomy was performed, preserving adjacent organs with macroscopic desmoplastic reaction. Histopathologic examination of the gallbladder showed a spindle cell proliferation with diffuse chronic inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells and hyalinized fibrous stroma. No vascular invasion or cellular atypia were evident.
CONCLUSION: Inflammatory pseudotumour is a rare condition and diagnostic distinction from a chronic inflammatory disease or other neoplasm is only possible by histopathologic examination. There is a limited number of case reports in the literature indicating tumor location in the gallbladder.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01408-7



  • Pancreatic Inflammation and Proenzyme Activation Are Associated With Clinically Relevant Postoperative Pancreatic Fistulas After Pancreas Resection

Annals of surgery 2020 Aug;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32833754

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the activation of pancreatic proenzymes and signs of peripancreatic inflammation in patients with clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPFs).
SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: An increase of systemic amylase concentration was associated with POPFs. This suggested parallels in the pathomechanisms between the development of POPFs and pancreatitis.
METHODS: Trypsinogen, procathepsin B, and IL-6 concentrations as well as cathepsin B, myeloperoxidase and trypsin activities were determined throughout the first 7 postoperative days in drain fluids of 128 consecutive patients after pancreas resection. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in pancreatic specimens after total pancreatectomy due to complications and after placing experimental pancreatic sutures in the pancreatic tail of C57/Bl6 mice.
RESULTS: Trypsin activity, cathepsin B activity and myeloperoxidase activity on the first postoperative day were elevated and predictive for clinically relevant pancreatic fistulas. Drain fluid stabilized trypsin activity and prevented the activation of the cascade of digestive enzymes. Leukocytes were the source of cathepsin B in drain fluid. Findings differed between fistulas after distal pancreatectomy and pancreatoduodenectomy. Immunohistochemistry of the pancreatic remnant revealed an inflammatory infiltrate expressing cathepsin B, independent of the presence of pancreatic fistulas. The infiltrate could be reproduced experimentally by sutures placed in the pancreatic tail of C57/Bl6 mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Trypsinogen activation, increased cathepsin B activity and inflammation around the pancreato-enteric anastomosis on post operative day 1 are associated with subsequent clinically relevant POPFs after pancreatoduodenectomy. The parenchymal damage seems to be induced by placing sutures in the pancreatic parenchyma during pancreatic surgery.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004257



  • Insulitis and lymphoid structures in the islets of Langerhans of a 66-year-old patient with long-standing type 1 diabetes

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2020 Aug;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32833039

Insulitis is a characteristic inflammatory lesion consisting of immune cell infiltrates around and within the pancreatic islets of patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). The infiltration is typically mild, both in terms of the number of infiltrating cells and the number of islets affected. Here, we present an unusual histopathological case study of a 66-year-old female patient with long-standing T1D, insulitis, and islet-associated lymphoid tissue. Most islets in the head of the pancreas of this patient were insulin-deficient, whereas the islets in the tail appeared normal. Insulitis was present in 0.84% of the insulin-containing islets and three islets had large lymphocytic infiltrates resembling tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS). Of note, this is the first description of potential TLS in the endocrine pancreas of a patient with T1D. Their association with a marked residual beta cell mass is of interest and may hint at new insights into disease progression and regulation of autoimmunity.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02915-4



  • A case report of pancreatic panniculitis due to acute pancreatitis with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Aug;20(1):286

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32831035

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare skin manifestation in pancreatic disease patients that most frequently develops on the lower legs. We report the unique case of a 68-year-old man who suffered from pancreatic panniculitis on his trunk associated with acute pancreatitis due to an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old man complained of a 2-day history of a tender subcutaneous nodule on his trunk. Laboratory tests and abdominal contrast computed tomography were consistent with acute pancreatitis due to an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. A skin biopsy of the nodule histologically displayed lobular panniculitis with characteristic “ghost cells”, which indicated pancreatic panniculitis.
CONCLUSIONS: In order to avoid a missed or delayed diagnosis, clinicians should bear in mind that pancreatic panniculitis can be the first manifestation of pancreatic disease when encountering subcutaneous nodules on the trunk.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01430-9



  • Pancreatic duct guidewire placement for biliary cannulation as a risk factor for stone residue after endoscopic transpapillary stone removal

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Aug;20(1):285

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32831030

BACKGROUND: Recent improvements in stone extraction implements and apparatus have lessened the complexity of the endoscopic bile duct stone treatment. However, despite confirmation of complete removal, cases of residual stones have been reported, which can result in recurrent biliary symptoms, cholangitis, and pancreatitis and considerably increase cost given the need for repeat imaging and/or procedures. To date, risk factors for residual bile duct stones following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) extraction have not been thoroughly evaluated. This study retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors of residual bile duct stones following extraction via ERCP.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all ERCP cases that underwent endoscopic bile duct stone extraction between April 2014 and March 2019. A total of 505 patients were enrolled and evaluated for the incidence and risk factors of residual bile duct stones after ERCP.
RESULTS: The rate of residual stones was 4.8% (24/505). Residual stones were detected by computed tomography (12/24) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (12/24). In univariate analyses, a large number of stones (P = 0.01), long procedure time (P = 0.005), and performance of the pancreatic duct guidewire placement method (P-GW) for selective bile duct cannulation (P = 0.01) were the factors involved in residual stones. In multiple logistic regression analysis, performing P-GW was retained as the only independent factor of residual stones (adjusted odds ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.19-9.88; P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: When removing bile duct stones with a pancreatic guidewire in place, paying attention to residual stones is necessary.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01428-3



  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 chemosensitizes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through its death receptor

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32830034

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal human malignancies. Gemcitabine and doxorubicin are commonly used as the chemotherapy agents, but most of PDAC tumors eventually acquired resistance to chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) plays a key role against tumor growth but its expression has commonly suppressed. The present study was designed to evaluate IGFBP-3 effects in chemotherapy sensitization of PDAC cells. Here, we report that the re-sensitization of chemoresistant PDAC cells was occurred by IGFBP-3 through recruitment of its death receptor (IGFBP-3R). Using gemcitabine, doxorubicin-resistant PDAC cell lines, we found that IGFBP-3 sensitized chemoresistant cells by activating apoptosis (as evaluated by Bax up-regulation, Bcl-2 down-regulation as well as Caspase-3 and Caspase 8 activation). IGFBP-3R was also found to have higher expression level in resistant AsPc-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells in comparison to parental cells. IGFBP-3R was also highly expressed in PDAC tumor which exposed to chemotherapy in comparison to un-treated PDAC tumors. In addition, we confirmed our finding by using specific siRNA to knocking down of IGFBP-3R which prevents IGFBP-3 Chemosensitization. Taken together, the present study for the first time indicates the clinical relevance for combining IGFBP-3 with chemotherapy to reduce chemoresistance in PDAC.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.07.406


New GallBladder Articles


  • A case of inflammatory pseudotumour of the gallbladder presenting as a big mass of uncertain behavior

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Aug;20(1):282

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32838747

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory pseudotumour has been used to describe an inflammatory or fibrosing tumoral process of an undetermined cause that may involve a variety of organ systems, including the lungs, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, pancreas and extrahepatic bile duct with potential for recurrence and persistent local growth. In this article, we report a patient with a big mass of uncertain nature and behavior.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Six months before she had had right upper quadrant pain that was interpreted as biliary colic. A contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a big mass of soft tissue with diffuse infiltration of the gallbladder, displacement of the transverse colon, hepatic flexure and duodenum. For diagnostic distinction between a chronic inflammatory disease or a neoplasm, exploratory laparotomy was required. Intraoperative exploration disclosed a big mass of hard texture involving the gallbladder, with multiple concrements, hepatoduodenal ligament, right and transverse mesocolon, stomach and duodenum. Cholecystectomy was performed, preserving adjacent organs with macroscopic desmoplastic reaction. Histopathologic examination of the gallbladder showed a spindle cell proliferation with diffuse chronic inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells and hyalinized fibrous stroma. No vascular invasion or cellular atypia were evident.
CONCLUSION: Inflammatory pseudotumour is a rare condition and diagnostic distinction from a chronic inflammatory disease or other neoplasm is only possible by histopathologic examination. There is a limited number of case reports in the literature indicating tumor location in the gallbladder.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01408-7


New BileDuct Articles


  • A case of inflammatory pseudotumour of the gallbladder presenting as a big mass of uncertain behavior

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Aug;20(1):282

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32838747

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory pseudotumour has been used to describe an inflammatory or fibrosing tumoral process of an undetermined cause that may involve a variety of organ systems, including the lungs, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, pancreas and extrahepatic bile duct with potential for recurrence and persistent local growth. In this article, we report a patient with a big mass of uncertain nature and behavior.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Six months before she had had right upper quadrant pain that was interpreted as biliary colic. A contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a big mass of soft tissue with diffuse infiltration of the gallbladder, displacement of the transverse colon, hepatic flexure and duodenum. For diagnostic distinction between a chronic inflammatory disease or a neoplasm, exploratory laparotomy was required. Intraoperative exploration disclosed a big mass of hard texture involving the gallbladder, with multiple concrements, hepatoduodenal ligament, right and transverse mesocolon, stomach and duodenum. Cholecystectomy was performed, preserving adjacent organs with macroscopic desmoplastic reaction. Histopathologic examination of the gallbladder showed a spindle cell proliferation with diffuse chronic inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells and hyalinized fibrous stroma. No vascular invasion or cellular atypia were evident.
CONCLUSION: Inflammatory pseudotumour is a rare condition and diagnostic distinction from a chronic inflammatory disease or other neoplasm is only possible by histopathologic examination. There is a limited number of case reports in the literature indicating tumor location in the gallbladder.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01408-7



  • Pancreatic duct guidewire placement for biliary cannulation as a risk factor for stone residue after endoscopic transpapillary stone removal

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Aug;20(1):285

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32831030

BACKGROUND: Recent improvements in stone extraction implements and apparatus have lessened the complexity of the endoscopic bile duct stone treatment. However, despite confirmation of complete removal, cases of residual stones have been reported, which can result in recurrent biliary symptoms, cholangitis, and pancreatitis and considerably increase cost given the need for repeat imaging and/or procedures. To date, risk factors for residual bile duct stones following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) extraction have not been thoroughly evaluated. This study retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors of residual bile duct stones following extraction via ERCP.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all ERCP cases that underwent endoscopic bile duct stone extraction between April 2014 and March 2019. A total of 505 patients were enrolled and evaluated for the incidence and risk factors of residual bile duct stones after ERCP.
RESULTS: The rate of residual stones was 4.8% (24/505). Residual stones were detected by computed tomography (12/24) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (12/24). In univariate analyses, a large number of stones (P = 0.01), long procedure time (P = 0.005), and performance of the pancreatic duct guidewire placement method (P-GW) for selective bile duct cannulation (P = 0.01) were the factors involved in residual stones. In multiple logistic regression analysis, performing P-GW was retained as the only independent factor of residual stones (adjusted odds ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.19-9.88; P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: When removing bile duct stones with a pancreatic guidewire in place, paying attention to residual stones is necessary.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01428-3



  • Usefulness of peroral cholangioscopy in the differential diagnosis of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a single-center retrospective study

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Aug;20(1):287

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32831026

BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC), differentiation from extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) is extremely important but is still a clinical challenge. This study aimed to elucidate the usefulness of peroral cholangioscopy (POCS) for the differential diagnosis between IgG4-SC and ECC.
METHODS: POCS findings for bile duct stricture were retrospectively evaluated in 17 patients with IgG4-SC diagnosed at the Hiroshima University Hospital and 53 patients with surgically resected infiltrating ECC. Mucosal surface, dilated vessels (tortuosity, caliber alteration, and disruption), and easily bleeding were compared between the groups.
RESULTS: The stricture sites of IgG4-SC evaluated by POCS were 10 extrapancreatic bile ducts and 9 intrapancreatic bile ducts. In patients with IgG4-SC, smooth mucosal surface was observed in 89% (17/19), dilated vessels in 58% (11/19) [tortuosity 82% (9/11), caliber alteration 18% (2/11), and disruption 9% (1/11)], and easily bleeding in 0%. Irregular mucosal surface and easily bleeding were observed significantly more frequently in ECC (both P <  0.001). The frequency of caliber alteration and disruption of dilated vessels was significantly less in IgG4-SC (P <  0.001 and 0.005, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of POCS in the diagnosis of ECC were 96 and 89%, respectively. Dilated vessels in IgG4-SC were observed significantly more frequently in the extrapancreatic bile duct, especially the hilar bile duct (P = 0.006). Concerning image evaluation, the interobserver agreement was κ = 0.719, and the intraobserver agreement was κ = 0.768 and 0.754.
CONCLUSIONS: Characteristic POCS findings of the stricture sites in IgG4-SC were smooth mucosal surface, dilated vessels without caliber alteration and disruption, and lack of easily bleeding. These POCS findings are extremely useful for distinguishing between IgG4-SC and ECC.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01429-2


New Ampulla Articles


  • A case of inflammatory pseudotumour of the gallbladder presenting as a big mass of uncertain behavior

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Aug;20(1):282

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32838747

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory pseudotumour has been used to describe an inflammatory or fibrosing tumoral process of an undetermined cause that may involve a variety of organ systems, including the lungs, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, pancreas and extrahepatic bile duct with potential for recurrence and persistent local growth. In this article, we report a patient with a big mass of uncertain nature and behavior.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Six months before she had had right upper quadrant pain that was interpreted as biliary colic. A contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a big mass of soft tissue with diffuse infiltration of the gallbladder, displacement of the transverse colon, hepatic flexure and duodenum. For diagnostic distinction between a chronic inflammatory disease or a neoplasm, exploratory laparotomy was required. Intraoperative exploration disclosed a big mass of hard texture involving the gallbladder, with multiple concrements, hepatoduodenal ligament, right and transverse mesocolon, stomach and duodenum. Cholecystectomy was performed, preserving adjacent organs with macroscopic desmoplastic reaction. Histopathologic examination of the gallbladder showed a spindle cell proliferation with diffuse chronic inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells and hyalinized fibrous stroma. No vascular invasion or cellular atypia were evident.
CONCLUSION: Inflammatory pseudotumour is a rare condition and diagnostic distinction from a chronic inflammatory disease or other neoplasm is only possible by histopathologic examination. There is a limited number of case reports in the literature indicating tumor location in the gallbladder.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01408-7


To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/