Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-08-06

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

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New Pancreas Articles


  • Correction to: The Prognostic Index Independently Predicts Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Undergoing Resection

Annals of surgical oncology 2020 Aug;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32754799

In the original article there are errors in the authors' affiliations.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09010-7



  • Comprehensive comparison of clinicopathological characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer according to tumor location

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32753119

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of borderline resectable (BR) pancreatic cancer (PC) has improved by multidisciplinary therapy. However, the differences in clinical course between pancreatic head (Ph) and pancreatic body and tail (Pbt) cancer has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we conducted this study to compare the clinical course of BR PC patients according to tumor location.
METHODS: We retrospectively investigated consecutive patients with BR PC who initiated neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) between March 2015 and April 2019. We compared clinicopathological characteristics, treatment, recurrence pattern and post recurrence treatment between Ph and Pbt cancer patients. We also compared recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) according to tumor location.
RESULTS: A total of 108 patients with BR PC were included. Tumor location was Ph 74 and Pbt 34, respectively. Initial regimen of NAC was nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine in 106 and gemcitabine in 2, respectively. Although Pbt location was associated with more advanced T stage, it showed similar N stage, pathological stage, RFS, OS, and details of adjuvant chemotherapy compared to Ph location. The most common site of postoperative recurrence was liver-only recurrence in Ph tumor (32% vs. 6%, p = 0.04) and peritoneal dissemination-only recurrence in Pbt tumor (35% vs. 11%, p = 0.06). Furthermore, Ph cancer patients received a higher rate of monotherapy compared to Pbt cancer patients (19% vs. 0%, p = 0.08).
CONCLUSIONS: In our experience tumor location was not a prognostic factor for OS in BR PC. Postoperative recurrence pattern and treatment after recurrence were different according to tumor location.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.07.004



  • Tumor growth kinetics by CA 19-9 in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy: A retrospective analysis

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32747196

BACKGROUND: Recently, measures of tumor growth kinetics calculated by carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) determinations after cytotoxic chemotherapy (CHT) have been reported as effective prognostic indicators in locally-advanced unresectable and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPDAC). The study aims to evaluate the prognostic role of tumor kinetics measured by CA 19-9 in patients with mPDAC, measuring it by three different ways.
METHODS: Patients with mPDAC receiving a first-line CHT between 2009 and 2017 were identified, and those for whom CA 19-9 data were available were enrolled. Three CA 19-9-related variables were calculated: CA 19-9 related reduction rate (RR) and tumor growth rate (G), after 8 weeks of CHT, tumor growth and inflammation index (TGII), after 90 days of CHT. The relationships with the outcome were analysed, and a Cox model has been build with each of the three variables.
RESULTS: Of 118 patients only 48 were eligible for the analysis. RR, G, or TGII appear as significant prognostic factors, and, after multivariate analysis, a reduction rate of 20% the baseline or more was associated with good survival (HR 0.321; CIs 0.156-0.661) as well as a G > -0.4%/day (HR 2.114; CIs 1.034-4.321), whereas TGII >190 was not correlated with the outcome (HR 1.788; CIs 0.789-4.055).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mPDAC, after 8 weeks of first-line CHT, CA 19-9-related tumor reduction or growth rate appear as valuable prognostic factors.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.07.397



  • Role of Serum Carcinoma Embryonic Antigen (CEA) Level in Localized Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: CEA Level Before Operation is a Significant Prognostic Indicator in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Therapy Followed by Surgical Resection: A Retrospective Analysis

Annals of surgery 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32744820

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the prognostic factors before neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) in the patients with localized PDAC. Furthermore, to identify the post-surgical survival predictors of patients with LAPC.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical resection may occupy an important position in multimodal therapy for patients with LAPC; however, its indication and who obtains the true benefits, is still uncovered.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: From 2005 to 2017, 319 patients with localized PDAC who underwent NCRT were reviewed. Only 159 patients were diagnosed with LAPC, of these 72 patients underwent surgical resection. We examined the pre-NCRT prognostic factors in the entire cohort and conducted further subgroup analysis for evaluating the post-surgical prognostic factors in LAPC patients under the pretext of favorable local tumor control.
RESULTS: In the entire cohort, pre-NCRT CEA value was recognized as the most significant prognostic indicator by multivariate analysis. In the 72 LAPC patients who underwent surgical resection, only high CEA level was identified as an independent dismal prognostic factor before surgery. At the cut-off value: 7.2 ng/mL, survival of the 15 patients whose CEA value >7.2 ng/mL was significantly unfavorable compared to those of 57 patients with <7.2 ng/mL: Median disease-specific survival time: 8.0 versus 24.0 months (P < 0.00001). Moreover, the median recurrence-free survival time of the high CEA group was only 5.4 months and there was no 1-year recurrence-free survivor.
CONCLUSIONS: CEA before NCRT is a crucial prognostic indicator for localized PDAC. Moreover, LAPC with a high CEA level, especially more than 7.2 ng/mL, should still be recognized as a systemic disease, and we should be careful to decide the indication of surgery even if tumor local control seems to be durable.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004148



  • Controversial Role of Adjuvant Therapy in Node-Negative Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm

Annals of surgical oncology 2020 Aug;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32743713

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or chemoradiation [chemo(radiation)] is considered the standard of care for resected patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, invasive carcinoma arising from an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) seems to have different biologic behavior and prognosis. Retrospective data suggest a survival benefit of adjuvant chemo(radiation) for resected invasive IPMNs with metastatic nodal disease; however, it is unclear whether this remains valid for node-negative patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: To compare the outcome of patients with invasive IPMNs who received adjuvant chemo(radiation) with that of those treated with surgery alone, we queried the National Cancer Database regarding data of patients who underwent pancreatic resection for invasive IPMN between 2006 and 2015. A propensity score analysis was conducted to balance covariates between treatment groups.
RESULTS: For the study, 492 patients were eligible, of whom 267 (54.3%) received adjuvant chemo(radiation). Estimated 1- and 3-year overall survival rates were 88.9% and 73.5% versus 93.2% and 72.8% for patients who did or did not receive adjuvant chemo(radiation), respectively. Among patients with negative nodal stage, there was no difference in overall survival between patients who received versus patients who did not receive adjuvant chemo(radiation) (P = 0.973). In contrast, among patients with positive nodal disease, those who received adjuvant chemo(radiation) had significantly better OS compared with those who did not (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with resected invasive IPMNs, adjuvant chemo(radiation) was associated with significantly improved overall survival only in presence of nodal metastases. This finding can help clinicians to select adjuvant treatment in a patient-tailored fashion.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08916-6



  • Mitochondrial expression of the DNA repair enzyme OGG1 improves the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32741713

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is an indicator of oxidative stress and causes transversion mutations and carcinogenesis. 8-OHdG is excision repaired by 8-OHdG DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), which is classified as nuclear and mitochondrial subtypes. We aimed to clarify the role of OGG1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
METHODS: Ninety-two patients with PDAC who had undergone surgical resection at multiple institutions were immunohistochemically analyzed. The OGG1 and 8-OHdG expression levels were scored using the Germann Immunoreactive Score. The cutoff values of OGG1, as well as that of 8-OHdG, were determined.
RESULTS: The low nuclear OGG1 expression group (n = 41) showed significantly higher carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 (p = 0.026), and higher s-pancreas antigen (SPAN)-1 (p = 0.017) than the high expression group (n = 51). Nuclear OGG1 expression has no effect on the prognosis. The low mitochondrial OGG1 expression group (n = 40) showed higher CA19-9 (p = 0.041), higher SPAN-1 (p = 0.032), and more histological perineural invasion (p = 0.037) than the high expression group (n = 52). The low mitochondrial OGG1 expression group had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0080) and overall survival (p = 0.0073) rates. The Cox proportional hazards model revealed that low mitochondrial OGG1 expression is an independent risk factor of the PDAC prognosis. OGG1 expression was negatively correlated with 8-OHdG expression (p = 0.0004), and high 8-OHdG expression shortened the recurrence-free survival of patients with PDAC.
CONCLUSIONS: Low mitochondrial OGG1 expression might aggravate the PDAC prognosis.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.07.011



  • Ki-67 proliferation index in neuroendocrine tumors: Can augmented reality microscopy with image analysis improve scoring?

Cancer cytopathology 2020 Aug;128(8):535-544

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32401429

BACKGROUND: The Ki-67 index is important for grading neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in cytology. However, different counting methods exist. Recently, augmented reality microscopy (ARM) has enabled real-time image analysis using glass slides. The objective of the current study was to compare different traditional Ki-67 scoring methods in cell block material with newer methods such as ARM.
METHODS: Ki-67 immunostained slides from 50 NETs of varying grades were retrieved (39 from the pancreas and 11 metastases). Methods with which to quantify the Ki-67 index in up to 3 hot spots included: 1) “eyeball” estimation (EE); 2) printed image manual counting (PIMC); 3) ARM with live image analysis; and 4) image analysis using whole-slide images (WSI) (field of view [FOV] and the entire slide).
RESULTS: The Ki-67 index obtained using the different methods varied. The pairwise kappa results varied from no agreement for image analysis using digital image analysis WSI (FOV) and histology to near-perfect agreement for ARM and PIMC. Using surgical pathology as the gold standard, the EE method was found to have the highest concordance rate (84.2%), followed by WSI analysis of the entire slide (73.7%) and then both the ARM and PIMC methods (63.2% for both). The PIMC method was the most time-consuming whereas image analysis using WSI (FOV) was the fastest method followed by ARM.
CONCLUSIONS: The Ki-67 index for NETs in cell block material varied by the method used for scoring, which may affect grade. PIMC was the most time-consuming method, and EE had the highest concordance rate. Although real-time automated counting using image analysis demonstrated inaccuracies, ARM streamlined and hastened the task of Ki-67 quantification in NETs.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22272


New GallBladder Articles


  • Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Resectable Gallbladder Cancer is Underutilized Despite Benefits in Node-Positive Patients

Annals of surgical oncology 2020 Aug;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32749621

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) is recommended following surgical resection of gallbladder cancer regardless of stage. However, stage-specific benefits of AC in gallbladder cancer are unclear.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with resected pathologic stage I-III gallbladder cancer were identified using the 2006-2015 National Cancer Database. Utilization trends, predictors of use, and impact of AC on overall survival (OS) were determined.
RESULTS: A total of 5656 patients were included. Use of AC increased from 9.9% in 2006 to 24.2% in 2015 (OR 2.91; 95% CI 2.06-4.09; p < 0.001). However, only 17.5% of patients overall and only 32.4% of node-positive (stage IIIb) patients received AC. Patients receiving AC were younger and had fewer comorbidities, shorter hospitalizations, more advanced disease, and more margin-positive resections (all p < 0.01). Higher pathologic T stage and positive nodal status represented the greatest independent predictors of receipt of AC. While AC demonstrated no OS advantage for stage I patients (p = 0.83), AC was associated with improved OS among stage II patients (p = 0.003), though this impact was not independently associated with improved OS on multivariable analysis. AC was independently associated with improved OS among stage IIIb patients, with a 30% reduction in risk of death (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.58-0.83; p < 0.001). Younger age, fewer comorbidities, and shorter hospitalization all predicted receipt of AC among stage IIIb patients (all p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Systemic therapy remains underprescribed, in particular among patients that would seem to benefit most. Adjuvant chemotherapy likely improves survival in node-positive gallbladder cancer, but its utility in the treatment of node-negative disease has not been demonstrated.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08973-x


New BileDuct Articles


  • [Autoimmune liver diseases]

Der Pathologe 2020 Aug;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32749523

Autoimmune liver diseases comprise a spectrum of progredient idiopathic inflammatory diseases. Typical histological features of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) include the pattern of chronic hepatitis with predominant plasma cell-rich interface activity, rosetting of hepatocytes, and emperipolesis. Florid bile duct lesions are the key feature of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC); onion-like periductal fibrosis characterizes the primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variants of AIH, or overlap syndromes, show intersecting histomorphologic findings with PBC or PSC. The diagnosis of the different autoimmune inflammatory liver diseases is based on clinical presentation, a hepatitic or cholestatic pattern of liver enzymes, immuno-serological findings, image analysis in PSC, and liver biopsy as a facultative or obligatory adjunct. Liver biopsy plays a major role in the diagnosis of AIH, small-duct PSC, AMA-negative PBC, IgG4-related diseases, overlap syndrome, and in the recognition of concurrent liver diseases, especially drug-induced liver diseases. Herewith pathologists can help clinicians find adequate therapy for different autoimmune inflammatory liver diseases.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00292-020-00807-7



  • Urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy versus conservative treatment in predicted severe acute gallstone pancreatitis (APEC): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

Lancet (London, England) 2020 07;396(10245):167-176

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32682482

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with biliary sphincterotomy improves the outcome of patients with gallstone pancreatitis without concomitant cholangitis. We did a randomised trial to compare urgent ERCP with sphincterotomy versus conservative treatment in patients with predicted severe acute gallstone pancreatitis.
METHODS: In this multicentre, parallel-group, assessor-masked, randomised controlled superiority trial, patients with predicted severe (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score ≥8, Imrie score ≥3, or C-reactive protein concentration >150 mg/L) gallstone pancreatitis without cholangitis were assessed for eligibility in 26 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a web-based randomisation module with randomly varying block sizes to urgent ERCP with sphincterotomy (within 24 h after hospital presentation) or conservative treatment. The primary endpoint was a composite of mortality or major complications (new-onset persistent organ failure, cholangitis, bacteraemia, pneumonia, pancreatic necrosis, or pancreatic insufficiency) within 6 months of randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN97372133.
FINDINGS: Between Feb 28, 2013, and March 1, 2017, 232 patients were randomly assigned to urgent ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=118) or conservative treatment (n=114). One patient from each group was excluded from the final analysis because of cholangitis (urgent ERCP group) and chronic pancreatitis (conservative treatment group) at admission. The primary endpoint occurred in 45 (38%) of 117 patients in the urgent ERCP group and in 50 (44%) of 113 patients in the conservative treatment group (risk ratio [RR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·64-1·18; p=0·37). No relevant differences in the individual components of the primary endpoint were recorded between groups, apart from the occurrence of cholangitis (two [2%] of 117 in the urgent ERCP group vs 11 [10%] of 113 in the conservative treatment group; RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·04-0·78; p=0·010). Adverse events were reported in 87 (74%) of 118 patients in the urgent ERCP group versus 91 (80%) of 114 patients in the conservative treatment group.
INTERPRETATION: In patients with predicted severe gallstone pancreatitis but without cholangitis, urgent ERCP with sphincterotomy did not reduce the composite endpoint of major complications or mortality, compared with conservative treatment. Our findings support a conservative strategy in patients with predicted severe acute gallstone pancreatitis with an ERCP indicated only in patients with cholangitis or persistent cholestasis.
FUNDING: The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, Fonds NutsOhra, and the Dutch Patient Organization for Pancreatic Diseases.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30539-0


New Ampulla Articles

Today there is no new Ampulla Article.

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/