Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-08-04

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/

New Pancreas Articles


  • Perioperative Broad-spectrum Antibiotics are Associated With Decreased Surgical Site Infections Compared to 1st-3rd Generation Cephalosporins After Open Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Patients With Jaundice or a Biliary Stent

Annals of surgery 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32740256

OBJECTIVE: Compare the effectiveness of 1st-3rd generation cephalosporins (1st-3rdCE) to broad-spectrum antibiotics in decreasing surgical site infections (SSI) after pancreatectomy.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SSI is one of the most common complications after pancreatic surgery. Various antibiotic regimens are utilized nationwide with no clear guidelines for pancreatectomy. As we await results of a recently initiated prospective trial, this study retrospectively evaluates over 15,000 patients using the same administrative data abstraction tools as in the trial.
METHODS: All relevant clinical variables were collected from the 2016-2018 targeted-pancreatectomy database from the American College of Surgeon National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Preoperative antibiotics were initially collected as first-generation cephalosporin, second or third-generation cephalosporin, and broad-spectrum antibiotics (Broad-abx).
RESULTS: Of the 15,182 patients who completed a pancreatic surgery between 2016 and 2018, 6114 (40%) received a first-generation cephalosporin, 4097 (27%) received a second or third-generation cephalosporin, and 4971 (33%) received Broad-abx. On multivariate analysis, Broad-abx was associated with a decrease in all-type SSI compared to 1st-3rdCE (odds ratio = 0.73-0.77, P < 0.001) after open pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). There was no difference in SSI between antibiotic-types after distal pancreatectomy. Subgroup multivariate analysis of open PD revealed decrease in all-type SSI with Broad-abx amongst patients with jaundice and/or biliary stent only, regardless of wound protector use (odds ratio = 0.69-0.70, P < 0.001). Propensity score matching of open PD patients with jaundice and/or biliary stent confirmed a decrease in all-type SSI (19% vs 24%, P = 0.001), and organ-space SSI (12% vs 16%, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Broad-abx are associated with decreased SSI after open PD and may be preferred specifically for patients with preoperative biliary stent and/or jaundice.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004216



  • Significance of Lymph Node Resection After Neoadjuvant Therapy in Pancreatic, Gastric, and Rectal Cancers

Annals of surgery 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32740236

OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal cancers are increasingly being treated with NAT before surgical resection. Currently, quality metrics are linked to the number of LNs resected to determine subsequent treatment and prognosis. We hypothesize that NAT decreases LN metastasis, downstages patients, and decreases overall lymph node yields (LNY) compared to initial surgical resection. With increasing use of NAT, this brings into question the validity of quality metrics.
METHODS: Gastric (stage II/III), pancreatic (stage I/II/III), and rectal cancers (stage II/III) (2010-2015) treated with surgery with/without NAT were identified in National Cancer Database. We evaluated total LNY and LN metastasis with/without NAT and clinical and pathological stage to evaluate rates of downstaging.
RESULTS:: A total of 7934 gastric, 15,908 pancreatic, and 21,354 rectal cancer patients were included of which 61.1%, 21.2%, and 85.7% received NAT, respectively. NAT patients were more likely to be downstaged (39.9% vs 11.1% gastric P< 0.001, 30.6% vs 3.2% pancreatic P< 0.001, 52.0% vs 16.3% rectal P< 0.001), have lower LNYs (18.8 vs 19.1 gastric P = 0.239, 18.4 vs 17.5 pancreatic P< 0.001, 15.7 vs 20.0 rectal P< 0.001) and have N0 pathologic disease (43.6% vs 26.7% gastric P< 0.001, 51.1% vs 30.9% pancreatic P< 0.001, 65.9% vs 49.4% rectal P< 0.001) when compared to initial surgical resection.
CONCLUSION: NAT for gastrointestinal cancers results in overall lower LN yields, lower LN metastases, and significant downstaging of tumors. As all patients undergoing NAT receive multimodality therapy, LN yield recommendations may not be true quality metric changing.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004181



  • Surgical Outcome Results From SWOG S1505: A Randomized Clinical Trial of mFOLFIRINOX Versus Gemcitabine/Nab-paclitaxel for Perioperative Treatment of Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Annals of surgery 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32740235

OBJECTIVE: The optimal neoadjuvant therapy for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and the impact on surgical outcomes remains unclear.
METHODS: S1505 (NCT02562716) was a randomized phase II study of perioperative chemotherapy with mFOLFIRINOX (Arm 1) or gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel (Arm 2). Measured parameters included resection rate, margin positivity, pathologic response, and toxicity.
RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2018, 147 patients were randomized. Of these, 44 (30%) were deemed ineligible (43 by central review). Of the 103 eligible patients, 77 (76%) completed preoperative therapy and underwent surgery; reasons patients did not undergo surgery included toxicity related to preoperative therapy (n = 9), progression (n = 9), or other (n = 7). Of the 77, 73 (95%) underwent successful resection; 21 (29%) required vascular reconstruction, 62 (85%) had negative (R0) margins, and 24 (33%) had a complete or major pathologic response to therapy. The grade 3-5 postoperative complication rate was 16%. Of the 73 patients completing surgery, 57 (78%) started and 46 (63%) completed postoperative therapy. This study represents the first prospective trial evaluating modern systemic therapy delivered in a neoadjuvant/perioperative format for resectable PDA.
CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated: (1) Based on the high percentage of enrolled, but ineligible patients, it is clear that adherence to strict definitions of resectable PDA is challenging; (2) Patients can tolerate modern systemic therapy and undergo successful surgical resection without prohibitive perioperative complications; (3) Completion of adjuvant therapy in the perioperative format is difficult; (4) Major pathologic response rate of 33% is encouraging.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004155



  • Respect – A multicenter retrospective study on preoperative chemotherapy in locally advanced and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32739267

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become a powerful tool to convert borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC) into a resectable scenario. However, data analyzing the optimal type of therapy are scarce. In the present multicenter retrospective study, we evaluated the influence of FOLFIRINOX (FFX) and gemcitabine (GEM)-based neoadjuvant therapy on patient prognosis.
METHODS: Data on 239 patients from 7 centers across Europe was gathered using an online database. Patients having received their first cycle of chemotherapy for BRPC/LAPC before 06/2017, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, were included in the intention-to-treat analysis.
RESULTS: Patients treated with neoadjuvant FFX (n = 135) or gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel (GNP) (n = 38) had significantly improved radiological response according to RECIST criteria as compared to single-agent GEM (n = 16), with a partial/complete response of 59.3%, 55.3% and 6.25% respectively (p = 0.001). Treatment with FFX (n = 135) and GNP (n = 38) resulted in higher resection rates compared to GEM (73.3%, 81.6% and 43.8%; p = 0.01 and p = 0.005). Regardless of regimen, patients who were resected had significantly prolonged overall survival compared to non-resected patients (p < 0.01). Complete pathological responses (ypT0 ypN0) were predominantly observed with FFX (p = 0.01). Adjuvant GNP in addition to successful neoadjuvant therapy and surgery resulted in a trend towards improved median survival as compared to postoperative observation (47.0 vs. 30.1 months, p = 0.06).
CONCLUSIONS: Representing one of the largest studies published so far, our results reveal that patients with BRPC/LAPC should be offered either FFX or GNP to improve chances of resection and with this also survival.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.06.012


New GallBladder Articles


  • Patterns of Failure and the Need for Biliary Intervention in Resected Biliary Tract Cancers After Chemoradiation

Annals of surgical oncology 2020 Aug;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32740733

BACKGROUND: This study assessed patterns of failure and rates of subsequent biliary intervention among patients with resected biliary tract cancers (BTCs) including gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) and extra- and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCA and iCCA) treated with adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
METHODS: In this single-institution retrospective analysis of 80 patients who had GBC (n = 29), eCCA (n = 43), or iCCA (n = 8) treated with curative-intent resection and adjuvant CRT from 2007 to 2017, the median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range 36-65 Gy) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. All but two of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The 2-year locoregional failure (LRF), 2-year recurrence-free survival (RFS), and 2-year overall survival (OS), and univariate predictors of LRF, RFS, and OS were calculated for the entire cohort and for a subgroup excluding patients with iCCA (n = 72). The predictors of biliary interventions also were assessed.
RESULTS: Of the 80 patients (median follow-up period, 30.5 months; median OS, 33.9 months), 54.4% had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 1 or 2 disease, 57.1% were lymph node-positive, and 66.3% underwent margin-negative resection. For the entire cohort, 2-year LRF was 23.8%, 2-year RFS was  43.7%, and 2-year OS was 62.1%.  When patients with iCCA were excluded, the 2-year LRF was 22.6%, the 2-year RFS was 43.9%, and the 2-year OS was 59.2%. In the overall and subgroup univariate analyses, lymph node positivity was associated with greater LRF, whereas resection margin was not. Biliary intervention was required for 12 (63.2%) of the 19 patients with LRF versus 11 (18%) of the 61 patients without LRF (P < 0.001). Of the 12 patients with LRF who required biliary intervention, 4 died of biliary complications.
CONCLUSIONS: The LRF rates remained significant despite adjuvant CRT. Lymph node positivity may be associated with increased risk of LRF. Positive margins were not associated with greater LRF, suggesting that CRT may mitigate LRF risk for this group. An association between LRF and higher rates of subsequent biliary interventions was observed, which may yield significant morbidity. Novel strategies to decrease the rates of LRF should be considered.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08967-9



  • Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Gallbladder: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Analysis of 34 Resected Cases

The American journal of surgical pathology 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32739935

Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is an aggressive malignant tumor that rarely arises from the gallbladder. Here, we investigated the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of 34 NECs of the gallbladder. The patients were predominantly women (68%) with a median age of 63 years (range, 37 to 82 y). NECs frequently occurred in the fundus (44%) as mass-forming lesions (66%). Histologically, 17 tumors were of small cell type, and another 17 were of large cell type. Twenty-three cases (68%) were associated with biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (38%) and intracholecystic papillary neoplasm (29%). The majority of tumors exhibited a diffuse growth pattern (74%), followed by organoid (24%) or scirrhous (2%) growth patterns. Histologic features related to neuroendocrine differentiation, such as nuclear molding (56%), perilobular pseudopalisading (18%), and rosette formation (15%), were identified. Immunohistochemically, cytokeratin 7 and 20 were expressed in 19 (56%) and 8 (24%) cases, respectively. Loss of Rb1 expression and concomitant overexpression of p16 were observed in 25 (74%) cases. No BRAF mutations were identified in any of the 34 NECs. For survival analysis, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 64%, 35%, and 19%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, the receipt of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy was identified as the only independent prognostic factor associated with the overall survival rate. The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates of patients with NECs were poorer for patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder (P<0.001). The complete resection and application of postoperative adjuvant therapy may influence a better clinical outcome in patients with NEC of the gallbladder.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001536


New BileDuct Articles

Today there is no new Bile Duct Article.

New Ampulla Articles

Today there is no new Ampulla Article.

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/