These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:
To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/
New Pancreas Articles
- Prediagnostic Image Data, Artificial Intelligence, and Pancreatic Cancer: A Tell-Tale Sign to Early Detection
Pancreas 2020 Aug;49(7):882-886
Pancreatic cancer continues to be one of the deadliest malignancies and is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Based on several models, it is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths by 2030. Although the overall survival rate for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer is less than 10%, survival rates are increasing in those whose cancers are detected at an early stage, when intervention is possible. There are, however, no reliable biomarkers or imaging technology that can detect early-stage pancreatic cancer or accurately identify precursors that are likely to progress to malignancy. The Alliance of Pancreatic Cancer Consortia, a virtual consortium of researchers, clinicians, and advocacies focused on early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, was formed in 2016 to provide a platform and resources to discover and validate biomarkers and imaging methods for early detection. The focus of discussion at the most recent alliance meeting was on imaging methods and the use of artificial intelligence for early detection of pancreatic cancer.
- The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society Consensus Guidelines for Surveillance and Medical Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Pancreas 2020 Aug;49(7):863-881
This article is the result of the North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society consensus conference on the medical management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors from July 19 to 20, 2018. The guidelines panel consisted of medical oncologists, pathologists, gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, and radiologists. The panel reviewed a series of questions regarding the medical management of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors as well as questions regarding surveillance after resection. The available literature was reviewed for each of the question and panel members voted on controversial topics, and the recommendations were included in a document circulated to all panel members for a final approval.
- Precision Oncology in Surgery: Patient Selection for Operable Pancreatic Cancer
Annals of surgery 2020 Aug;272(2):366-376
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to define preoperative clinical and molecular characteristics that would allow better patient selection for operative resection.
BACKGROUND: Although we use molecular selection methods for systemic targeted therapies, these principles are not applied to surgical oncology. Improving patient selection is of vital importance for the operative treatment of pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma). Although surgery is the only chance of long-term survival, 80% still succumb to the disease and approximately 30% die within 1 year, often sooner than those that have unresected local disease.
METHOD: In 3 independent pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cohorts (total participants = 1184) the relationship between aberrant expression of prometastatic proteins S100A2 and S100A4 and survival was assessed. A preoperative nomogram based on clinical variables available before surgery and expression of these proteins was constructed and compared to traditional measures, and a postoperative nomogram.
RESULTS: High expression of either S100A2 or S100A4 was independent poor prognostic factors in a training cohort of 518 participants. These results were validated in 2 independent patient cohorts (Glasgow, n = 198; Germany, n = 468). Aberrant biomarker expression stratified the cohorts into 3 distinct prognostic groups. A preoperative nomogram incorporating S100A2 and S100A4 expression predicted survival and nomograms derived using postoperative clinicopathological variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Of those patients with a poor preoperative nomogram score, approximately 50% of patients died within a year of resection. Nomograms have the potential to improve selection for surgery and neoadjuvant therapy, avoiding surgery in aggressive disease, and justifying more extensive resections in biologically favorable disease.
- Timing But Not Patterns of Recurrence Is Different Between Node-negative and Node-positive Resected Pancreatic Cancer
Annals of surgery 2020 Aug;272(2):357-365
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate recurrence patterns of surgically resected PDAC patients with negative (pN0) or positive (pN1) lymph nodes.
SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2030. This is mostly due to early local and distant metastasis, even after surgical resection. Knowledge about patterns of recurrence in different patient populations could offer new therapeutic avenues.
METHODS: Clinicopathologic data were collected for 546 patients who underwent resection of their PDAC between 2005 and 2016 from 2 tertiary university centers. Patients were divided into an upfront resection group (n = 394) and a neoadjuvant group (n = 152).
RESULTS: Tumor recurrence was significantly less common in pN0 patients as compared with pN1 patients, (upfront surgery: 55% vs. 77%, P < 0.001 and 64% vs. 78%, P = 0.040 in the neoadjuvant group). In addition, time to recurrence was significantly longer in pN0 versus pN1 patients in the upfront resected patients (median 16 mo pN0 vs. 10 mo pN1 P < 0.001), and the neoadjuvant group (pN0 21 mo vs. 11 mo pN1, P < 0.001). Of the patients who recurred, 62% presented with distant metastases (63% of pN0 and 62% of pN1, P = 0.553), 24% with local disease (27% of pN0 and 23% of pN1, P = 0.672) and 14% with synchronous local and distant disease (10% of pN0 and 15% of pN1, P = 0.292). Similarly, there was no difference in recurrence patterns between pN0 and pN1 in the neoadjuvant group, in which 68% recurred with distant metastases (76% of pN0 and 64% of pN1, P = 0.326) and 18% recurred with local disease (pN0: 22% and pN1: 15%, P = 0.435).
CONCLUSION: Time to recurrence was significantly longer for pN0 patients. However, patterns of recurrence for pN0 vs. pN1 patients were identical. Lymph node status was predictive of time to recurrence, but not location of recurrence.
- A Snapshot of Elective Oncological Surgery in Italy During COVID-19 Emergency: Pearls, Pitfalls, and Perspectives
Annals of surgery 2020 08;272(2):e112-e117
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of COVID-19 emergency on elective oncological surgical activity in Italy.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: COVID-19 emergency shocked national health systems, subtracting resources from treatment of other diseases. Its impact on surgical oncology is still to elucidate.
METHODS: A 56-question survey regarding the oncological surgical activity in Italy during the COVID-19 emergency was sent to referral centers for hepato-bilio-pancreatic, colorectal, esophago-gastric, and sarcoma/soft-tissue tumors. The survey portrays the situation 5 weeks after the first case of secondary transmission in Italy.
RESULTS: In total, 54 surgical Units in 36 Hospitals completed the survey (95%). After COVID-19 emergency, 70% of Units had reduction of hospital beds (median -50%) and 76% of surgical activity (median -50%). The number of surgical procedures decreased: 3.8 (interquartile range 2.7-5.4) per week before the emergency versus 2.6 (22-4.4) after (P = 0.036). In Lombardy, the most involved district, the number decreased from 3.9 to 2 procedures per week. The time interval between multidisciplinary discussion and surgery more than doubled: 7 (6-10) versus 3 (3-4) weeks (P < 0.001). Two-third (n = 34) of departments had repeated multidisciplinary discussion of patients. The commonest criteria to prioritize surgery were tumor biology (80%), time interval from neoadjuvant therapy (61%), risk of becoming unresectable (57%), and tumor-related symptoms (52%). Oncological hub-and-spoke program was planned in 29 departments, but was active only in 10 (19%).
CONCLUSIONS: This survey showed how surgical oncology suffered remarkable reduction of the activity resulting in doubled waiting-list. The oncological hub-and-spoke program did not work adequately. The reassessment of healthcare systems to better protect the oncological path seems a priority.
- Global Survey on Pancreatic Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Annals of surgery 2020 08;272(2):e87-e93
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the role of pancreatic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic to optimize patients' and clinicians' safety and safeguard health care capacity.
SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The COVID-19 pandemic heavily impacts health care systems worldwide. Cancer patients appear to have an increased risk for adverse events when infected by COVID-19, but the inability to receive oncological care seems may be an even larger threat, particularly in case of pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: An online survey was submitted to all members of seven international pancreatic associations and study groups, investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pancreatic surgery using 21 statements (April, 2020). Consensus was defined as >80% agreement among respondents and moderate agreement as 60% to 80% agreement.
RESULTS: A total of 337 respondents from 267 centers and 37 countries spanning 5 continents completed the survey. Most respondents were surgeons (n = 302, 89.6%) and working in an academic center (n = 286, 84.9%). The majority of centers (n = 166, 62.2%) performed less pancreatic surgery because of the COVID-19 pandemic, reducing the weekly pancreatic resection rate from 3 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-5] to 1 (IQR 0-2) (P < 0.001). Most centers screened for COVID-19 before pancreatic surgery (n = 233, 87.3%). Consensus was reached on 13 statements and 5 statements achieved moderate agreement.
CONCLUSIONS: This global survey elucidates the role of pancreatic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, regarding patient selection for the surgical and oncological treatment of pancreatic diseases to support clinical decision-making and creating a starting point for further discussion.
- Beyond Stiffness: Collagen Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreas Regeneration
The American journal of pathology 2020 Aug;190(8):1622-1624
This commentary highlights the article by Ruggeri et al that reports the importance of discoidin domain receptor 1 in tissue homeostasis in pancreatic injury and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma pathogenesis.
- Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) Is Necessary for Tissue Homeostasis in Pancreatic Injury and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
The American journal of pathology 2020 Aug;190(8):1735-1751
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and chronic pancreatitis are characterized by a dense collagen-rich desmoplastic reaction. Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by collagens that can regulate cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. To address the role of DDR1 in PDA, Ddr1-null (Ddr-/-) mice were crossed with the KrasG12D/+; Trp53R172H/+; Ptf1aCre/+ (KPC) model of metastatic PDA. Ddr1-/-; KPC mice progress to differentiated PDA but resist progression to poorly differentiated cancer compared with KPC control mice. Strikingly, severe pancreatic atrophy accompanied tumor progression in Ddr1-/-; KPC mice. To further explore the effects of Ddr1 ablation, Ddr1-/- mice were crossed with the KrasG12D/+; Ptf1aCre/+ neoplasia model and subjected to cerulein-induced experimental pancreatitis. Similar to KPC mice, tissue atrophy was a hallmark of both neoplasia and pancreatitis models in the absence of Ddr1. Compared with controls, Ddr1-/- models had increased acinar cell dropout and reduced proliferation with no difference in apoptotic cell death between control and Ddr1-/- animals. In most models, organ atrophy was accompanied by increased fibrillar collagen deposition, suggesting a compensatory response in the absence of this collagen receptor. Overall, these data suggest that DDR1 regulates tissue homeostasis in the neoplastic and injured pancreas.
New GallBladder Articles
Today there is no new Gallbladder Article.
New BileDuct Articles
- Management of primary hepatic malignancies during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations for risk mitigation from a multidisciplinary perspective
The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology 2020 08;5(8):765-775
Around the world, recommendations for cancer treatment are being adapted in real time in response to the pandemic of COVID-19. We, as a multidisciplinary team, reviewed the standard management options, according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification system, for hepatocellular carcinoma. We propose treatment recommendations related to COVID-19 for the different stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (ie, 0, A, B, and C), specifically in relation to surgery, locoregional therapies, and systemic therapy. We suggest potential strategies to modify risk during the pandemic and aid multidisciplinary treatment decision making. We also review the multidisciplinary management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma as a potentially curable and incurable diagnosis in the setting of COVID-19.
New Ampulla Articles
Today there is no new Ampulla Article.
To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/