Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-07-16

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/

New Pancreas Articles


  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with and without osteoclast-like giant cells

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32661742

Undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) and undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (UCOGC) are peculiar variants of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), characterized by hypercellularity and absence of glandular patterns. The inflammatory microenvironment is peculiar in UCOGC, since it is dominated by macrophages and osteoclast-like giant cells. However, from a molecular point of view, both UC and UCOGC are very similar to conventional PDAC, sharing alterations of the most common genetic drivers. Clinically, UC usually show a worse prognosis, whereas UCOGC may show a better prognosis if it is not associated with a PDAC component. To highlight potential biological differences between these entities, we investigated the role of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in UC and UCOGC. Specifically, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of three well-known EMT markers, namely Twist1, Snai2, and E-cadherin, in 16 cases of UCOGC and 10 cases of UC. We found that EMT is more frequently activated in UC (10/10 cases) than in UCOGC (8/16 cases; p = 0.05). Furthermore, in UCOGC, EMT was activated with a higher frequency in cases with an associated PDAC component. Snai2 was the most frequently and strongly expressed marker in both tumor types (10/10 UC, 8/16 UCOGC), and its expression was higher in UC than in UCOGC (mean immunohistochemical score: 4.8 in UC vs. 2.1 in UCOGC, p < 0.01). Our results shed new light on the biology of UC and UCOGC: EMT appeared as a more important process in UC, and Snai2 emerged as a central EMT effector in this setting.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02889-3



  • Distinctions with a Difference: RNA Subtyping and Clinical Outcome In Pancreatic Cancer

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32661068

Pancreatic cancer patients need effective therapy from the moment of their diagnosis. How best to deploy them, in what order and to which patients is emerging as an important clinical question. Pancreatic cancer subtypes, identifiable with common lab diagnostics in diagnostic biopsy samples, may be helpful in guiding therapy selection.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1062



  • Elevated CA125 levels are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in acute pancreatitis: A propensity score-matched study

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) … [et al.] 2020 Jun;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32660761

OBJECTIVES: Glycosylation alterations are indicative of tissue inflammation and neoplasia. However, there are no large-sample, real-world studies assessing the levels of serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). We aimed to identify the association between elevated CA125 levels and adverse clinical outcomes in AP.
METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study with an analysis of 3939 patients with AP who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University between January 2015 and September 2019 that used data from a prospectively maintained database. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and a propensity score-matched analysis were conducted to reveal the relationship between elevated CA125 levels and poor prognosis.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of elevated CA125 (>35 U/mL) levels was 38.51% (1517/3939) in AP patients. Elevated CA125 levels were independently associated with higher risks of mortality (adjusted odds ratio (AdjOR), 1.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-2.54; P < 0.001), severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) (AdjOR, 2.40; 95% CI, 2.00-2.88; P < 0.001), and infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) (AdjOR, 3.54; 95% CI, 2.65-4.71; P < 0.001). The propensity score-matched cohort analysis also demonstrated that mortality (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23; P < 0.05), SAP (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.77-2.73; P < 0.001), and IPN (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.98-3.92; P 35 U/mL) are independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in AP patients. These observations justify ongoing efforts to understand the role of CA125 in the pathogenesis and prognosis of AP.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.06.009



  • Global targetome analysis reveals critical role of miR-29a in pancreatic stellate cell mediated regulation of PDAC tumor microenvironment

BMC cancer 2020 Jul;20(1):651

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32660466

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive forms of malignancies with a nearly equal incidence and mortality rates in patients. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are critical players in PDAC microenvironment to promote the aggressiveness and pathogenesis of the disease. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play a significant role in progression of PDAC. Earlier, we observed a PSC-specific downregulation of miR-29a in PDAC pancreas, however, the mechanism of action of the molecule in PSCs is still to be elucidated. The current study aims to clarify the regulation of miR-29a in PSCs and identifies functionally important downstream targets that contribute to tumorigenic activities during PDAC progression.
METHODS: In this study, using RNAseq approach, we performed transcriptome analysis of paired miR-29a overexpressing and control human PSCs (hPSCs). Enrichment analysis was performed with the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs). miR-29a targets in the dataset were identified, which were utilized to create network interactions. Western blots were performed with the top miR-29a candidate targets in hPSCs transfected with miR-29a mimic or scramble control.
RESULTS: RNAseq analysis identified 202 differentially expressed genes, which included 19 downregulated direct miR-29a targets. Translational repression of eight key pro-tumorigenic and -fibrotic targets namely IGF-1, COL5A3, CLDN1, E2F7, MYBL2, ITGA6 and ADAMTS2 by miR-29a was observed in PSCs. Using pathway analysis, we find that miR-29a modulates effectors of IGF-1-p53 signaling in PSCs that may hinder carcinogenesis. We further observe a regulatory role of the molecule in pathways associated with PDAC ECM remodeling and tumor-stromal crosstalk, such as INS/IGF-1, RAS/MAPK, laminin interactions and collagen biosynthesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, our study presents a comprehensive understanding of miR-29a regulation of PSCs, and identifies essential pathways associated with PSC-mediated PDAC pathogenesis. The findings suggest an anti-tumorigenic role of miR-29a in the context of PSC-cancer cell crosstalk and advocates for the potential of the molecule in PDAC targeted therapies.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07135-2



  • Increased circulating total bile acid levels were associated with organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Jul;20(1):222

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32660430

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that bile acids (BAs) are closely related to metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Our study aimed to investigate whether circulating total bile acid (TBA) levels were associated with the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP).
METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients diagnosed with AP in a tertiary center from 01 January 2014 to 31 December 2016. The highest TBA value during the first 1,2,3,5,7 days after admission was determined as D1, D2, D3, D5, D7 TBAmax. Patients were divided into the high TBA (HTBA) group and the normal TBA (NTBA) group according to whether the TBAmax was ≥10 μmol/L. The prognosis and complications, including death, organ failure (OF) and pancreatic necrosis, were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis and receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to evaluate the relationship between circulating TBA and organ failure in AP patients.
RESULTS: Through stratified analysis of each time period, we found that the incidence of OF in the HTBA group was significantly higher than that in the NTBA group, and the AP severity classification in the HTBA group was more serious than that in the NTBA group. In addition, according to the D7 TBAmax values, the pancreatic necrosis rate, percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) rate and mortality in the HTBA group were higher than those in the NTBA group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that HTBA (odds ratio (OR), 4.894; P = 0.002) was an independent risk factor for AP complicated with OF, which was verified in the grouping based on D7 TBAmax. ROC analysis revealed that a circulating D7 TBAmax cutoff point of 6.450 umol/L had optimal predictive value for the development of OF in AP patients with an area under the curve of the ROC curve (AUCROC) of 0.777.
CONCLUSIONS: The increase of circulating TBA in early stage of AP is independently related to organ failure, which indicates the adverse prognosis of AP patients.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01243-w


New GallBladder Articles

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New BileDuct Articles

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New Ampulla Articles

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To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/