Recent Articles on Pancreatobiliary #Pathology – 2020-07-10

These are the recent articles on Pancreatobiliary Pathology:

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/

New Pancreas Articles


  • Genetic characteristics of gastric-type mucinous carcinoma of the uterine cervix

Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2020 Jul;():

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32641744

Gastric-type mucinous carcinoma (GAS) is a recently established variant of endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma that is characterized as being unrelated to HPV and having aggressive behavior and chemoresistance. GAS has a distinct morphology resembling nonneoplastic gastric glands or pancreaticobiliary adenocarcinoma, and their possible genetic similarity has been posed. In this study, next-generation sequencing was performed in 21 GAS cases using a customized panel including 94 cancer-associated genes. A total of 54 nonsynonymous somatic mutations were detected with an average mutation rate of 2.6 per lesion (range: 0-9). The most frequently mutated gene was TP53 (11/21, 52.4%), followed by STK11, HLA-B, PTPRS (4/21, 19.0%), FGFR4 (3/21, 14.3%), GNAS, BRCA2, ELF3, ERBB3, KMT2D, SLX4 (2/21, 9.5%), CDH1, EPCAM, KRAS, MLH1, RNF43, SNAI1, TWIST1, ZEB1, ZEB2, and so on (1/21, 4.8%). The mutated genes were mostly involved in signal transduction, DNA damage repair, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Correlation of TP53 mutation and p53 protein expression demonstrated that 31.3% with abnormal p53 expression harbored wild-type TP53. Compared to genetic features of gastric and pancreaticobiliary adenocarcinoma, TP53 mutations were frequent in both GAS and gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. While KMT2D, ERBB3, and RNF43 mutations were shared between GAS and gastric adenocarcinoma, highly mutated genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma such as KRAS, SMAD4, and CDKN2A were rarely mutated in GAS. Of frequently mutated genes in cholangiocarcinoma, BAP1 and HLA-B were identified in GAS. Frequent EMT-related gene mutations suggested a possible role of EMT-related pathways in tumor dissemination and chemoresistance of GAS. In addition, GAS shared some genetic features with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. These findings provide a clue in understanding the biological basis of GAS.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0614-0



  • Meta-analysis examining overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer treated with second-line 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based therapy after failing first-line gemcitabine-containing therapy: effect of performance status and comparison with other regimens

BMC cancer 2020 Jul;20(1):633

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32641104

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis and few choices of therapy. For patients with adequate performance status, FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel are preferred first-line treatment. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based therapy (e.g. FOLFIRI, OFF, or FOLFOX) are often used in patients who previously received gemcitabine-based regimens. A systematic review was conducted of the safety and efficacy of FOLFOX for metastatic pancreatic cancer following prior gemcitabine-based therapy. A Bayesian fixed-effect meta-analysis with adjustment of patient performance status (PS) was conducted to evaluate overall survival (OS) and compare outcomes with nanoliposomal irinotecan combination therapy.
METHODS: PubMed.gov , FDA.gov , ClinicalTrials.gov , congress abstracts, Cochrane.org library, and EMBASE database searches were conducted to identify randomized controlled trials of advanced/metastatic disease, prior gemcitabine-based therapy, and second-line treatment with 5-FU and oxaliplatin. The database search dates were January 1, 1990-June 30, 2019. Endpoints were OS and severe treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). Trial-level PS scores were standardized by converting Karnofsky grade scores to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Grade, and overall study-weighted PS was calculated based on weighted average of all patients.
RESULTS: Of 282 studies identified, 11 randomized controlled trials (N = 454) were included in the meta-analysis. Baseline weighted PS scores predicted OS in 10 of the 11 studies, and calculated PS scores of 1.0 were associated with a median OS of 6.3 months (95% posterior interval, 5.4-7.4). After adjusting for baseline PS, FOLFOX had a similar treatment effect profile (median OS, range 2.6-6.7 months) as 5-FU/leucovorin plus nanoliposomal irinotecan therapy (median OS, 6.1 months; 95% confidence interval 4.8-8.9). Neutropenia and fatigue were the most commonly reported Grade 3-4 TRAEs associated with FOLFOX.
CONCLUSIONS: Baseline PS is a strong prognostic factor when interpreting the efficacy of 5-FU and oxaliplatin-based therapy of pancreatic cancer after progression on first-line gemcitabine-based regimens. When baseline PS is considered, FOLFOX has a similar treatment effect as 5-FU and nanoliposomal irinotecan therapy and a comparable safety profile. These findings suggest that 5-FU and oxaliplatin-based therapies remain an acceptable and alternative second-line treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer and adequate PS (e.g. ECOG 0-1) following gemcitabine treatment.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07110-x



  • Open necrosectomy combined with continuous positive drainage and prophylactic diverting loop ileostomy for late infected pancreatic necrosis: a retrospective cohort study

BMC gastroenterology 2020 Jul;20(1):212

PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=32640995

BACKGROUND: To evaluate an innovative open necrosectomy strategy with continuous positive drainage and prophylactic diverting loop ileostomy for the management of late infected pancreatic necrosis (LIPN).
METHODS: Consecutive patients were divided into open necrosectomy (ON) group (n = 23), open necrosectomy with colonic segment resection (ON+CSR) group (n = 8) and open necrosectomy with prophylactic diverting loop ileostomy (ON+PDLI) group (n = 11). Continuous positive drainage (CPD) via double-lumen irrigation-suction tube (DLIST) was performed in ON+PDLI group. The primary endpoints were duration of organ failure after surgery, postoperative complication, the rate of re-surgery and mortality. The secondary endpoints were duration of hospitalization, cost, time interval between open surgery and total enteral nutrition (TEN).
RESULTS: The recovery time of organ function in ON+PDLI group was shorter than that in other two groups. Colonic complications occurred in 13 patients (56.5%) in the ON group and 3 patients (27.3%) in the ON+PDLI group (p = 0.11). The length of stay in the ON+PDLI group was shorter than the ON group (p = 0.001). The hospitalization cost in the ON+PDLI group was less than the ON group (p = 0.0052).
CONCLUSION: ON+PDLI can avoid the intestinal dysfunction, re-ileostomy, the resection of innocent colon and reduce the intraoperative trauma. Despite being of colonic complications before or during operation, CPD + PDLI may show superior effectiveness, safety, and convenience in LIPN.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01343-7


New GallBladder Articles

Today there is no new Gallbladder Article.

New BileDuct Articles

Today there is no new Bile Duct Article.

New Ampulla Articles

Today there is no new Ampulla Article.

To see all journal watch articles please visit: http://pbpath.org/journal-watch-upcoming-issue/